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PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN RAJASTHAN POLICE (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TRAINEE CONSTABLES)

A THESIS Submitted to The

UNIVERSITY OF RAJASTHAN FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN COMMERCE

Supervisor:

Submitted By:

Dr. Dileep Singh Associate Professor Department of Bus. Administration

Ms. Sunita Sharma

Faculty of Commerce University of Rajasthan, Jaipur

RS No/500/11 Department of Bus. Administration

Faculty of Commerce University of Rajasthan, Jaipur

Department of Business Administration Faculty of Commerce

University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 2015

Dedicated with Love To God & My Grandparents Who show me the right path of life, My Parents Who gave me birth and let me grow, My Research Supervisor Who gave me cause to try, My Friends Who gave me hope to complete it.

Dr. Dileep Singh Associate Professor Department of Business Administration University of Rajasthan Jaipur Date:

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the thesis entitled “Psychological Efficacy of Training Programmes in Rajasthan Police (With Special Reference to Trainee Constables)”, submitted by Ms. Sunita Sharma has been guided and supervised by me. This research work has not previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma, fellowship or any other similar title. It is an original piece of work. Ms. Sunita Sharma has done her Ph.D. research work under my guidance, spending more than 100 days in each year at the Headquarter.

Dr. Dileep Singh

Place: Jaipur Date:

Sunita Sharma Research Scholar Department of Business Administration University of Rajasthan Jaipur Date:

DECLARATION I hereby declare that the thesis entitled “Psychological Efficacy of Training Programmes in Rajasthan Police (With Special Reference to Trainee Constables)” for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, is my original work and that it has not previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma, fellowship or any other similar title.

Place : Jaipur Date:

Yours faithfully

Sunita Sharma

PREFACE A theme that runs throughout this modest study-its theoretical as well as the concrete part- is the psychology efficacy of training programmes in Rajasthan Police. If the information of every training programme can be gathered, the higher authority would always be in a position to know the reasons why the trainees behave the way they do during and after the training; whether training programmes in Rajasthan Police are psychologically effective or not.

Training is a conscious effort to impart, improve or increase knowledge and skills and to develop attitudes and values of an individual in a desired direction. It is, thus, a process of developing a person's effectiveness through carefully selected methods by competent trainers in a suitable learning climate. It should be directed not only towards preparing him for the efficient and effective performance of his duties in the assigned job, but also towards developing his capacity for greater responsibilities and where appropriate, fitting him for other duties.

The police is a state subject and its organisation and working are governed by rules and regulations framed by the state governments. These rules and regulations are outlined in the Police Manuals of the state police forces. To understand completely the role of the police in today’s world and to ensure that basic recruit training programs are the rule rather than the exception, a framework has always been necessary for viewing the police function so that training planners include within any given training program all of the actual activities in which police become involved during their daily tours of duty, based on the realities of police work. As such,

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constables all across the law enforcement community embarked on their respective job task analysis efforts in agencies’ attempts to define exactly what basic training is important and how much of it is needed in any given area of the job.

Police work tends to impose a high degree of stress and a multiplicity of stressful situations which can affect the physical, mental and interpersonal relationships of police personnel. This also leads to lower Emotional Intelligence, lack of Happiness and deviate Personality traits.

The present study focuses on whether the training

programmes in Rajasthan Police are show the way to higher Stress, lower Emotional Intelligence and happiness and some Personality deviation. Because training is the only tool which can change the behaviour of trainees either positively or negatively. Psychological Success of any training programme only depends upon when it leads to more positive changes in behaviour than negative one.

Based on the findings and analysis, the study provides some solutions to make the training programmes more effective. Training environment should be friendly. During the training programmes, there should be some sessions in which trainees could show their creativity. Somewhere trainee constables are lacking their self confidence; training programmes should be planned in a way that increases trainees’ self belief.

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Acknowledgement My sincere and hearty gratitude need to be expressed to a number of people who made this piece of research work possible. This thesis has been kept on track and been seen through to completion with the support and encouragement of numerous people including my well wishers, my friends, colleagues and various institutions. At the end of my thesis I would like to thank all those people who made this thesis possible and an unforgettable experience for me. At the end of my thesis, it is a pleasant task to express my thanks to all those who contributed in many ways to the success of this study and made it an unforgettable experience for me.

At this moment of accomplishment, first of all I express my sincere gratitude to my guide, Dr. Dileep Singh. This work would not have been possible without his guidance, support and encouragement. Under his guidance I successfully overcame many difficulties and learned a lot. His unflinching courage and conviction will always inspire me, and I hope to continue to work with his noble thoughts. It is difficult to commit to words my thanks to him.

I am also extremely indebted to Prof. Naveen Mathur, Head, Department of Business Administration, University of Rajasthan for iii

providing necessary infrastructure and resources to accomplish my research work. I warmly thank Prof. Anil Mehta, for his valuable advice, constructive criticism and his extensive discussions around my work.

I take this opportunity to sincerely acknowledge the Bureau of Police Research & Development, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi, for providing financial assistance in the form of Research Fellowship which buttressed me to perform my work comfortably.

I take this opportunity to say heartful thanks to Dr. Bhupendra Singh(IPS) and Mrs. Kamal Shekhawat (RPS) for allowing to collect the pre and post training data from Rajasthan Police Academy, Jaipur for my thesis work and their support during my thesis.

I would also like to thank some people from early days of my research tenure. Prof. Shashi Sahay, Dr. Sushila Pareek, Dr. Rahul Saini, were among those who kept me going at the beginning.

I am indebted to my many student colleagues for providing a stimulating and fun filled environment. I wish to thank my best friends, Vipra and Sapna for their love, care and moral support. Kaushambi and Mr. Alok iv

Mathur deserve special mention here for their constant support, motivation and help.

I am also thankful to Mr. Prem Chand Shamra, Mr. Naval Kishor Sharma, Mrs. Reva, Mr. R.K. Sharma and Puran Bhaiya .

My regards are also due to the staff of the Central Library, University of Rajasthan, Department of Lifelong Learning, University of Rajasthan, Rajasthan Police Academy, Jaipur for being kind enough in letting me access and incorporate relevant material for my literature.

Last but not least, I would like to pay high regards to my Grandparents, Parents, brothers and Sisters for their sincere encouragement and inspiration throughout my research work and lifting me uphill this phase of life. I owe everything to them. Besides this, several people have knowingly and unknowingly helped me in the successful completion of my thesis work.

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CONTENTS CHAPTER

TITLE

1

Preface Acknowledge Contents List of Tables List of Charts Introduction: Concept of Training, Characteristics of Training, Methods of Training, Evaluation of Training, Process of Evaluation, Methods of Evaluation, Rajasthan Police & Training

2

3

4

5

PAGE i-ii iii-iv v-vi vii-x xi 1-31

Research Methodology: Review of 32-61 Literature, Objectives, Hypothesises, Variables, Research Design, Sampling, Inclusion & Exclusion Criteria, Data Collection, Tools, Procedure, Scoring, Statistical Analysis Stress: Introduction, Causes of work 62-93 related stress, Types of stress, Theories of stress, Theories of psychological stress at work Happiness: Introduction, 4 qualities 94-117 of life, Components of happiness, Types of happiness, Theories of happiness, Happiness at workplace, Factors determining happiness at workplace, Importance of happiness at workplace, Measuring the content of happiness at workplace Personality: Introduction, 118-139 Determinants of personality, Theories of personality, Types of personality, Personality traits, 16 factors of personality, Role of personality at workplace, Working personality of police personnel

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Emotional Intelligence: 140-169 Introduction, Basic Components of Emotional Intelligence, History of Emotional Intelligence, Determinants of Emotional Intelligence, Importance of Emotional Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence at workplace, Emotional Intelligence & police personnel

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Data Analysis, Results & 170-277 Discussion: Comparative analysis of Stress, Happiness, 16 Personality factors & Emotional Intelligence at pre and post training stages of the trainee constables, Comparative analysis of Stress, Happiness, 16 Personality factors & Emotional Intelligence at pre and post training stages of the male trainee constables, Comparative analysis of Stress, Happiness, 16 Personality factors & Emotional Intelligence at pre and post training stages of the female trainee constables Findings, Suggestions, Conclusion: 278-289 Introduction, Major findings, Limitations, Suggestions, Scope for the further research, Conclusion Bibliography i-xi Appendices: (i) Questionnaires (ii) Raw Scores

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LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. 7.1 7.2

7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22

TABLE NAME Stress Before and After Training Programme (overall) Happiness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Personality Factors Warmth Before and After Training Programme (overall) Reasoning Before and After Training Programme (overall) Emotional Stability Before and After Training Programme (overall) Dominance Before and After Training Programme (overall) Liveliness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Rule Consciousness Before and After Training Programme (overall) social Boldness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Sensitivity Before and After Training Programme (overall) Vigilance Before and After Training Programme (overall) Abstractness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Privateness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Apprehensiveness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Openness to change Before and After Training Programme (overall) Self Reliance Before and After Training Programme (overall) Perfectionism Before and After Training Programme (overall) Tension Before and After Training Programme (overall) Total Emotional Intelligence Before and After Training Programme (overall) Self Awareness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Empathy Before and After Training Programme (overall) Self MotivationBefore and After Training Programme (overall) vii

PAGE NO. 172 174

176 178 180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206 208 210 211 212

7.23 7.24 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29 7.30 7.31

7.32 7.33 7.34 7.35 7.36 7.37 7.38 7.39 7.40 7.41 7.42 7.43 7.44 7.45

Emotional Stability Before and After Training Programme (overall) Managing Relations Before and After Training Programme (overall) Integrity Before and After Training Programme (overall) Self Development Before and After Training Programme (overall) Value Orientation Before and After Training Programme (overall) Commitment Before and After Training Programme (overall) Altruistic Behavior Before and After Training Programme (overall) Stress Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Happiness Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Personality Factors Warmth Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Reasoning Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Emotional Stability Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Dominance Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Liveliness Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Rule Consciousness Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) social Boldness Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Sensitivity Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Vigilance Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Abstractness Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Privateness Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Apprehensiveness Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Openness to change Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Self Reliance Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) viii

213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221

222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235

7.46 7.47 7.48 7.49 7.50 7.51 7.52 7.53 7.54 7.55 7.56 7.57 7.58 7.59 7.60

7.61 7.62 7.63 7..64 7.65 7.66 7.67 7.68

Perfectionism Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Tension Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Total Emotional Intelligence Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Self Awareness Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Empathy Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Self Motivation Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Emotional Stability Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Managing Relations Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Integrity Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Self Development Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Value Orientation Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Commitment Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Altruistic Behavior Before and After Training Programme (Male trainee constables) Stress Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Happiness Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Personality Factors Warmth Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Reasoning Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Emotional Stability Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Dominance Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Liveliness Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Rule Consciousness Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) social Boldness Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Sensitivity Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) ix

236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250

251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258

7.69 7.70 7.71 7.72 7.73 7.74 7.75 7.76 7.77 7.78 7.79 7.80 7.81 7.82 7.83 7.84 7.85 7.86 7.87

Vigilance Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Abstractness Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Privateness Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Apprehensiveness Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Openness to change Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Self Reliance Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Perfectionism Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Tension Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Total Emotional Intelligence Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Self Awareness Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Empathy Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Self Motivation Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Emotional Stability Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Managing Relations Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Integrity Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Self Development Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Value Orientation Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Commitment Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables) Altruistic Behavior Before and After Training Programme (Female trainee constables)

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259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277

LIST OF CHARTS CHART NO.

7.1 7.2

7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19

CHART NAME Stress Before and After Training Programme (overall) Happiness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Personality Factors Warmth Before and After Training Programme (overall) Reasoning Before and After Training Programme (overall) Emotional Stability Before and After Training Programme (overall) Dominance Before and After Training Programme (overall) Liveliness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Rule Consciousness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Ssocial Boldness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Sensitivity Before and After Training Programme (overall) Vigilance Before and After Training Programme (overall) Abstractness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Privateness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Apprehensiveness Before and After Training Programme (overall) Openness to change Before and After Training Programme (overall) Self Reliance Before and After Training Programme (overall) Perfectionism Before and After Training Programme (overall) Tension Before and After Training Programme (overall) Total Emotional Intelligence Before and After Training Programme (overall)

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PAGE NO. 173 175

177 179 181 183 185 187 189 191 193 195 197 199 201 203 205 207 209

Concept of Training Characteristics of Training Methods of Training Evaluation of Training Process of Evaluation Methods of Evaluation Rajasthan Police & Training

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1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 CONCEPT OF TRAINING Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. The major outcome of training is learning, i.e., transformation in the behavioural process in the form of increased performance, technical know-how, performing the job more effectively, and also preparing the individual for higher-level jobs. We may then define training as a planned, sequential process aiming at bringing about a significant change in knowledge, skills, attitudes, and social behaviour of employees. The outcomes of the training programme may be summarized as (a).increased knowledge and skills for doing a job, (b).bridging of the gap between job needs and employee skills, knowledge, and behaviour, and (c).enhancement of operative skills. Deal S. Beach defined the training as ―the organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skill for a definite purpose.‖ 1 According to Edwin B. Flippo, ―Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.‖ 2 In the words of Michael Jucius, ―Training indicates any process by which the aptitudes, skills, and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are increased.‖ 3

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1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAINING 1. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee‘s present doing a particular job. 2. It is a learning process and experience. 3. In its widest sense, training is an aid to ‗self-development‘. 4. It bridges the differences between job requirements and employee‘s present specifications. 5. It involves the changing of skills, knowledge, attitudes, or social behavior. 6. It is an essential part of management development. 7. It is misleading to think of training as an ―afterthought‖ or reactive—a series of ad-hoc if-it activities, separated from other organizational functions.4

1.3 PURPOSE & IMPORTANCE Training per se can be used by organizations for multiple purposes, and a variety of factors can influence the organizations‘ approach towards training. The objectives of training can be multifarious and some of them are: 1.3.1 Induction: training can be used by organization for inducting new recruits into the organization. The initial period plays a predominant role 2

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in the assimilation/association of the organization. The induction training is used by organization for acclimatization and also inducting to policies/procedures of the organization. 1.3.2 Updating: Training can also be used for periodical updating of skills of the employees. This may become essential because of new policies and launch of new products. 1.3.3 Preparing for future assignment: The organizations also use training as a tool to prepare employees for responsibilities in future. Organizations also conduct training in order to build loyalty among the employees. 1.3.4 Competency development and identification of training need: It is known fact that identification of training needs and competency development is increasingly recognized as imperative to stay alive in competition. 1.3.5 Simulation and game play: In case of technical subjects and complicated projects, it would not be feasible for the employees to be trained on the job, and, in such cases, organizations create simulated work conditions to train environment. 1.3.6 Motivation and Creativity: Training fosters the initiative and creativity among employees. Training motivates employees to work harder.5 3

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1.3.7 Other factors: To increase productivity and quality of product or service, To improve organizational climate, To improve health and safety and prevent accidents, To minimize the resistance to change, To harness the human potential and give expression to creative urges and to effect the personal growth.

1.4 METHODS & TECHNIQUES There are several methods of training. A training method should be best suited to the organization‘s specific needs. The various factors generally considered for selecting a method include-skills required, qualifications of employees, cost, time, depth of knowledge required, etc. The training methods can be classified as either on-the-job or off-the-job training. Some methods may be knowledge-based, experiential, or simulative. The most popular training methods and techniques are as follows: 1.4.1 Job Instruction Training (JIT) – Many jobs consist of a logical sequence of steps and are best taught in this manner-step-by-step learning has been called job instruction training. It involves listing all necessary steps in the job, each in its proper sequence. Alongside each step, ―key point‖ can also be described. The steps 4

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show what is to be done, while the key points show how it is to be done-and why. The JIT involves the following four steps: (a) Preparing the trainee in terms of existing skill in the job, securing his interest and attention; (b) Presenting the job operations in term of what the trainee is required to do; (c) Applying and trying out the instructions; and (d) Following the training. This method is used to improve motor skills and routine and repetitive operations.6 I.

On-the-Job Training (OJT) - This method places the employees in an actual works situation and makes them appear to be immediately productive. It is learning by doing. Individuals are trained on the same machines, while doing the same work expected of them. The employee learns in the same environment where he will be working at his regular tasks. He, therefore, comes in close contact with his future supervisors and peers. It is very popular method of training. In fact, every employee, from a clerk to company manager, gets some ―onthe-job‖ training when he joins a firm. This is why William Tracey calls it ―the most common, the most widely accepted,

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and the most necessary method of training employees in the skills essential for acceptable job performance.‖ In many firms, OJT is the only type of training available to employees. There are a variety of OJT methods. The most familiar are as follows: a) Coaching or Understudy-Here the employee is trained on the job by his immediate superior. At lower levels, the coaching may simply involve having the trainee observe his supervisor so as to develop the skills necessary for doing work. This method is also widely loosed at top management levels. Here the positions of ―Assistant‖ and ―assistant to‖ are often used for the purpose or training and developing the company‘s future top managers. This method presumes that a worker will learn by helping another worker to do his job. b) Training by an Experienced Worker- The experienced worker may be a good teacher. He may train employees by performing his duties. c) A Specially Trained Instructor- The special instructor may be chosen primarily because of his ability to teach. He may have special training in instructing.

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d) The Flying Squadron-It is a special group of workers who are given wide experience on many jobs and who are used to fill vacancies arising from absentees. This ―utility squad‖ is also used to train people on the job. e) Job Rotation-Here, the employee moves from job to job at planned intervals. The jobs usually vary in content, and quality of work. This movement through different jobs provides a wider exposure to employees. Thus, they become trained. f) Special Assignments and Committees-These are used to provide lower-level managers with firsthand experience in working on actual problems. Managers from various functional areas serve on ―boards‖ and are trained to analyze problem.

Advantages: 1. This method places the employees in actual work conditions. It is learning by doing. Thus, it motivates employed and makes them productive. 2. It is less expensive and consumes less time. 3. Under this method, workers learn in a relatively short period of time, say a week or two.

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4. There is no line staff conflict because the worker‘s own supervisor is the instructor. 5. No elaborate program is required as far as subject is concerned. 6. The production work does not suffer under this method. 7. The training is under the supervision of supervisors who take keen interest in the training program. Limitations: 1. This training is highly disorganized haphazard. Thus, it may create safety hazards. It may result in damaged products or materials. 2. The experienced trainers may not be available. 3. The employees selected as trainers may not perform their job well. Their bad habits become the training model. 4. There is lack of motivation in conducting the training. Not all employees are anxious to teach, nor to be responsible for teaching someone the job. 5. The trainee‘s can make errors while they learn. Also, it has low productivity while employees develop their skills.7

II.

Vestibule Training- This training is conducted away from the actual work floor. Workers are trained on specific machine in a

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separate location. Here, the working environment is artificial but it is just like the actual conditions. Advantages 1 The instructor is a specialist and more skilled at teaching. 2 It has no problem of transferring learning to the job, because this training uses the same equipments the trainee will use on the job. 3 The instructor can give more attention to the trainees because he has no other work assign to him. Limitations 1. It is expensive method as duplicate machines and tools are required. 2. Training is given under artificial conditions; hence workers feel difficulty in adjustment on actual job.8 III.

Classroom Lecture – It is this method widely used method of training. It involves speaking or presenting information to large numbers of trainees usually from prepared notes. Lecture is a mean of ―telling‖ trainees something. Here, the instructor presents series of facts, concepts, and principles.

Advantages 1. It is a way of imparting knowledge to trainees.

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2. It requires less time. The trainer can present more material in a given time than he can present more material in a given amount of time than he can by any other method. 3. It can be used with very large groups also. Limitations 1. It represents one way communication. It does not provide for trainee‘s participation. 2. Lectures are inadequate in themselves for teaching new skills or for changing attitude. 3. It may also lack feedback from trainees.9 IV.

Conferences -

This method is use to employees develop problem solving skills. Here the trainer leads to discussion, involves trainees to solve problems and in arriving at discussions. There are three types of conference: (a) Direct Discussion: Here the trainer guides the discussion in such way that the facts, principles, or concepts are explained. (b) Training Conference: In this conference the instructor‘s job is to get the group of pool its knowledge and bring different points of view to bear on the problem.

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(c) Seminar Conference: The purpose of this seminar is to find an answer to get a question or a solution to a problem. The instructor defines the problem and encourages full participation in the discussion. The main advantage of conference is that they permit the trainees to actively engage in discussions. But the difficulty in using conferences is the lack of the good conference leaders. Advantages 1. There is a lot of trainee participation. 2. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture, panel, and seminar) to keep sessions interesting. Limitations 1. 2.

It can be difficult to control a group. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the manager‘s ideas, causing conflict.

V.

Seminars and Workshops- These are organized by educational institutions and professional bodies. They may also be of great help in training of the business personnel. In this method of training, an effort is made to expose participants to concepts and theories. These are aimed at creating an awareness of the knowledge of fundamentals. These are knowledge-based 11

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methods of training. Hence, the focus of seminars and workshops is on transmission of knowledge which has to be imbibed the participants. Advantages 1. Group members are involved in the training. 2. The trainer can use many group methods as part of the seminar activity. Limitations 1. Planning is time-consuming. 2. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. More time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods.10 VI.

Apprenticeship Programmes- It is designed for imparting technical skill. It combines practical knowledge on the job and classroom instructions in particular subjects. This method of training is used in a number of crafts such as machinists, electricians, pipe-fitters, welders, tinners, carpenters, etc. in many industries such as mental, printing and building constructions, this system of training is very popular. The apprentice training may continue for three or five years. The trainees get some stipend during their training period. The 12

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worker is usually absorbed by the concerned industry after training period is over. It is the oldest and most common method of training used in crafts, trades, and technical jobs. Advantages (a) Trainees get some amount of stipend during training. (b) The trainees acquire valuable skill which carries good demand in the market. (c) It reduces production cost as labor turnover is very low. (d) It is cheaper source of skilled labor for the employer. (e) The loyalty of the employees is created. Limitations 1. The training period is very long. Hence, it is an expensive method. 2. The trainee requires regular supervision which may not be possible. 3. Rigid standards make this method unsatisfactory. VII.

Internship-It is a joint programme of training in which educational institutions and business houses cooperate. In this method, students are given practical training while they study. Selected candidates carry on regular studies and they are also sent to factory or office during their vacations to get practical knowledge of their job. This method of training is used in 13

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professional courses, e.g., MBBS, MBA, CA, ICWA, etc. This method is useful only for skilled and technical workers. VIII.

Learner Training- Learners are also those candidates who are selected for semi-skilled jobs. They lack even the basic knowledge of industrial engineering. Hence, such persons are first providing basic education of arithmetic, workshop, and machine operations in vocational schools. They can be assigned regular jobs after completion of training.11

IX.

Films- Films can provide information & explicitly demonstrate skills that are not easily presented by other techniques. Motion pictures are often used in conjunction with Conference, discussions to clarify & amplify those points that the film emphasized.

Advantages 1. It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and discussion. 2. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee. Limitations It is expensive to develop. Most trainers choosing this option must

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purchase the training from an outside vendor, making the content less specific to their needs.12 IX Simulation Exercise- Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a Simulation. Simulation activities include case experiences, experiential exercises, vestibule training, management games & role-play. Advantages 1. Training becomes more reality-based, as trainees are actively involved in the learning process. 2. It directly applies to jobs performed after training. 3. Simulations involve yet another learning style, increasing the chance that trainees will retain what they have learned. Limitations 1. Simulations are time-consuming. 2. The trainer must be very skilled and make sure that trainees practice the skills correctly. 3. Only perfect practice makes perfect.13 X Cases- - present an in depth description of a particular problem an employee might encounter on the job. The employee attempts to find and

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analyze the problem, evaluate alternative courses of action & decide what course of action would be most satisfactory. Advantages 1. A case study can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. 2. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important. Limitations 1. Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. 2. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions, making points, and keeping trainees on track.14 XI

Experiential Exercises- Experiential Exercises are usually short,

structured learning experiences where individuals learn by doing. For instance, rather than talking about inter-personal conflicts & how to deal with them, an experiential exercise could be used to create a conflict situation where employees have to experience a conflict personally & work out its solutions.15 XII Role Play- It‘s just like acting out a given role as in a stage play. In this method of training, the trainees are required to enact defined roles on the basis of oral or written description of a particular situation.

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Advantages 1. Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. They get an opportunity to practice people skills. 2. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers. Limitations 1. A lot of time is spent making a single point. 2. Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. 3. In some role play situations, only a few people get to practice while others watch.16 XIII

Management Games- The game is devised on a model of a

business situation. The trainees are divided into groups who represent the management of competing companies. They make decisions just like these are made in real-life situations. Decisions made by the groups are evaluated & the likely implications of the decisions are fed back to the groups. The game goes on in several rounds to take the time dimension into account. 17

17

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XIV

Introduction

In-Basket Exercise- In-Basket Exercise also known as In-tray

method of training. The trainees is presented with a pack of papers & files in a tray containing administrative problems & is asked to take decisions on these problems & are asked to take decisions on these within a stipulated time. The decisions taken by the trainees are compared with one another. The trainees are provided feedback on their performance. XV Panel- A panel provides several points of view on a topic to seek alternatives to a situation. Panel members may have differing views but they must also have objective concerns for the purpose of the training. This is an excellent method for using outside resource people. Advantages 1. Trainees often find it interesting to hear different points of view. 2. The process invites employees to share their opinions and they are challenged to consider alternatives. Limitations 1. It requires a great deal of preparation. The results of the method can be difficult to evaluate.18 XVI Projects- Projects require the trainees to do something on the job which improves the business as well as helps them learn about the topic of training. It might involve participation on a team, the creation of a

18

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database, or the forming of a new process. The type of project will vary by business and the skill level of the trainee. Advantages 1. This is a good training activity for experienced employees. Projects can be chosen which help solve problems or otherwise improve the operation. 2. Trainees get first-hand experience in the topic of the training. 3. Little time is needed to prepare the training experience. Limitations 1. Without proper introduction to the project and its purpose, trainees may think they are doing somebody else‘s work. Also, if they do not have an interest in the project or there is no immediate impact.19 XVII Self-Discovery- Trainees discover the competencies on their own using such techniques as guided exercises, books, and research. Advantages 1. Trainees are able to choose the learning style that works the best for them. They are able to move at their own pace and have a great deal of ownership over their learning.

19

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Limitations 1. Trainees can easily get side-tracked and may move slower than the trainer desires. It is also more difficult to measure the employee‘s progress.20 XVIII Transactional Analysis- Transactional Analysis (TA) is both a theory of human personality and a system for the improvement of human relations. Its application to organizations provides a systematic approach to understanding the links between human needs and behaviors and the ways that the organizations are effective or ineffective in solving their problems and serving their customers. TA helps executives and managers of the corporate world to achieve excellence in their multifaceted organizational life. TA provides a comprehensive model to understand behavioral

patterns,

communication,

interpersonal

relationship,

motivation, time management, attitudes, conflict management, and life span development for better living.

TA provides a meta model to integrate several behavioral science approaches to Organizational and Human Resource Development. Certified Transactional Analysts acquire and prove their competencies in organizational application of Transactional Analysis through an internationally recognized rigorous training and certification process.21

20

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When choosing from among these methods, the trainer must decide which one best suits the trainees, the environment, and the investments available. Many trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them. Others will select a single method that works best for them and never vary. With so many options, a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity. 21 1.5 EVALUATION OF TRAINING Generally speaking, evaluation is the systematic appraisal by which an organization determines the worth, value, or meaning of something to someone. In the case of training, the HR is concerned with providing information on the effectiveness of the training activity to decisionmakers who will make decisions based on the information: To increase effectiveness of the training programme while it is going on, To increase the effectiveness of the programmes to be held next time, and To help participants get feedback for their improvement and efficiency. In evaluating the effectiveness of any training programme, whatever is the method used, the following criteria should always be kept in mind: Objective 21

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Cost-benefit analysis Flexibility Results obtained Staff required Improvement possible22 1.6 PROCESS OF EVALUATION Evaluation of training means assessment of the impact and effects of training on trainee performance and behavior. A training program is devised for an employee with some specific in view. These learning objectives can serve as the evaluation criteria for evaluating a training program, and also to find out whether the training has helped in improving performance. Comparison of one‘s performance before and after the training is necessary. Evaluation of training requires setting of evaluation criteria. The learning objectives of training serve as the criteria. These should be determined before the training begins. Thus, the process of evaluation involves the following steps: 1. Devising evaluation criteria before training begins and 2. Conducting pre-test to know the skill level of the worker before training. 23

22

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1.7 METHODS OF EVALUATION 1.7.1 Questionnaires (feedback) or ‗happiness sheets‘ are a common way eliciting trainee responses to courses and programmes. 1.7.2 Tests or examinations are common in formal courses, which provide a test can be provided after short courses to check the progress of trainees. 1.7.3 Projects are initially seen as learning methods but they can also provide valuable information to instructors. Structured exercises and case studies are opportunities to apply learned skills and techniques under the observation of tutors and evaluators. The opinions of those who deliver the training are important. Tutor reports give a valuable assessment from a different perspective. Interviews of trainees are conducted after the course or instruction period to assess its effectiveness. These can be informal or formal, individual or group, and direct or telephonic. Observation of course and training by those devising strategies in the training department is very useful and information from these observations can be compared with trainee responses. Participation and discussion during training requires people who are adept at interpreting responses, as this can be highly subjective.24

23

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For complicated training evaluations, it is recommended that combination of these approaches be used. It is necessary to elicit the responses from the trainees and the tutors or trainers, and others involved in the assessment process, and then compare and contrast the responses for correlation.

1.8 RAJASTHAN POLICE AND TRAINING Rajasthan emerged as a result of the merger of a number of former princely states and some parts of the British India. Prior to the merger almost all the princely states had their own independent police forces having their own systems of administration and each police force was linked with the individual Rulers of these States. With the emergence of the State of Rajasthan, the Rajasthan Police came into existence. Members of the various police forces were selectively absorbed into the new Rajasthan Police Force. The process of having a uniform police force for the entire State shaped with passage of time to meet the needs of the people.25

The need for proper training to the personnel of the force was felt which led to the establishment of the first training institute of Rajasthan Police in 1949 in the historic fort of Chittorgarh. Geographical and

24

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Introduction

administrative factors and relative constraints contributed to the shifting of this institute to Kishangarh in Ajmer district. The first batch of the trainees joined at Kishangarh on 1st may, 1950. Thus it became the main training institute of the State and continued to function at Kishangrah till August, 1975.

In August, 1975 the institute was shifted to its present location at Jaipur and was upgraded to the status of an Academy. The foundation stone of the administrative block of this institute was laid on 24th October, 1975. The Academy was formally inaugurated by the then Hon'ble Chief Minister of Rajasthan, Shri Bhairon Singh Shekhawat, on the 3rd July, 1978.

Earlier the State Government had appointed a committee in October, 1973 headed by Shri Ganesh Singh, the then Additional Inspector General of Police for the re-organization of police force. This committee studied different aspects of re-organization of Rajasthan Police after conducting a detailed examination of the training facilities available to it. The recommendations of the committee were accepted and many basic changes were introduced in the Academy and the training system of the

25

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Introduction

police. A separate post of Inspector General of Police (Training) was created in April, 1980.26

Training is an integral part of police force as it moderates the knowledge, skill and attitudinal changes in police personnel. The role of police is constantly undergoing change with changing times, increasing aspirations of the people and changing technology. The training becomes important not only for the police department but for the society as a whole. The Gore Committee (1971) has come out with the most comprehensive document on police training in the country. Its recommendations are being incorporated in the various syllabi. Training aids and methods are also being used in accordance with the recommendations of the Gore Committee.27

1.8.1 Recruitment and training of constables: Recruitment to the state police is done generally at three levels Constable, Sub-Inspector/Asst. Sub Inspector and Deputy Superintendent of Police. In addition, there is recruitment to the IPS at the level of Assistant Superintendent of Police. Since Police Constable is the lowest rank in the force, recruitment to this rank is done directly. For the other ranks, vacancies are filled either by direct recruitment or by promotion. 26

Chapter -1

Introduction

Constables are recruited on a district/battalion basis. Recruitment is generally made by a Board presided over by the District SP or the Commandant of an armed police battalion. In some states such as Rajasthan and Tamilnadu, the selection board is headed by an officer of the rank of a DIG or IG. The selection process involves physical measurement, efficiency test, written examination, interview, medical examination and police verification.28

Most states have their police training colleges or academies that impart training to directly recruited Sub-Inspectors and Deputy Superintendents of Police and training schools for the training of constabulary.

In addition, most central police organisations have established their own training institutions, which organise not only basic training for their officers but also specialised courses for them and for others.

Four types of training courses are organised by police training institutions. These include: 1. Basic induction level courses for fresh recruits. 2. Pre-promotion in-service courses for those about to be promoted. 3. Refresher courses. 27

Chapter -1

Introduction

4. Specialised courses29 Constable is the most frequent seen police officer and generally the first to come in contact with the public. Though turn out and smartness impress, the people by large, judge a constable by his behaviour and the extent to which his attitude is helpful or otherwise. This applies in particular to the non-affluent section to whom the constable is the visible symbol of authority and who expect him to use it for safeguarding their rights and rendering them assistance in the solution of their problems.

The syllabi of the basic courses for constables in the different states show that, by and large, they lay stress on crime prevention, assistance in the investigation of crime and maintenance of law and orders, drill, discipline and smartness, and building physical stamina. First aid, general knowledge and the principles of Police conduct are included in all these syllabi.

Duration: 9 months Subjects taught: Police Organisation and Administration, Law, Crime Prevention, Maintenance of Law and Order, Code of Conduct and Behaviour, Police–Public Relations, Computer etc.30

28

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Outdoor training: Basic Physical Training, Drill, Weapons and Explosives, Field Craft and Tactics, First Aid, Riot Control; Unarmed Combat etc. 31

29

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Introduction

References and Notes 1. Beach D.S. (1980). Personnel : The Management of People at Work. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 244. 2. Flippo, E.B. (1984). Personnel Management. McGraw Hill Book Company. 3. Jucius, M. (1955). Personnel Management. U.S.A.: Richard D. Irwin Inc., Hanewood, ~llinois.. 142. 4. Roethlisberger, F.J., George, F.F. & Ronkin, H.O. (1954). ―Training for Human Relations‖. Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration. 137. 5. John. A. W. and James W. Cartada (2002). Training and Performance Year Book: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 6. Dessler G., (2005). Human Resource Management. 10th Ed. U.S.A.: Pearson Prentice Hall. 7. Van der Klink R.M. and Streumer J.N (2002). Effectiveness of On-the-Job Training. Journal of European Industrial Training 26/2/3/4. 196-199 8. Coles M. (2000) ―Virtual universities Are just The Job‖. The Sunday Times, 21 May 9. Noe A. R., (2005). Employee Training and Development. 3rd Ed. McGrawHill Co. 10. Deva V. (2002).Training and Development. India: Commonwealth Publishers. 11. Warr, P. B. (2002). Learning and training. In P.B. Warr, (ed) Psychology at Work. London: Penguin Books. 12. Sadler-Smith E., Down S et al. (2000). ―Modern Learning Methods: Rheotic and Reality‖. Personnel Review, 29 (4):474. 13. McCall Jr. M.W. and. Lombardo, M.M. (1982). ―Using Simulation for Leadership and Management Research‖. Management Science 28. 533–49. 14. Kelly, H. (1989). ―Case Method Training: What It Is and How It Works,‖ in Effective Training Delivery, ed. D. Zielinski. Minneapolis: Lakewood Books. 95–96. 15. Clements et al. (1995). ―The Ins and Outs of Experiential Training‖. Training and Development (February 1995). 52–56. 16. Hequet, M. (1995). ―Games That Teach‖. Training (July 1995). 53–58. 17. O'Sullivan, K. (2002). ―Business War Games‖. Training (December 2002). 18. 18. Youst, D.B. & Lipsett, L. (1989). ―New Job Immersion without Drowning‖. Training and Development Journal (February 1989): 73–75 19. Carey, S. (2006). ―Racing to Improve‖. The Wall Street Journal, (March 24, 2006): B1, B6. 20. Piskurich, G.M. (1985). Self-Directed Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 21. Decker, P. & Nathan, B. (1985). Behavior Modeling Training. Praeger Scientific: New York .

30

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22. Poulet, R. (2008). ―Training Process Effectiveness‖. Journal of Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol, 18 (1). 10-13. 23. Garrett, J.E. & Brian, H.K. (2007). ―How to measure Management Training and Development Effectiveness‖. Journal of European Industrial Training Vol, 14. (9) 5 /12 2012. 24. Kirkpatrick, D. (1959). Technique for evaluating training program. J. AM . Soc Training Dev, 13, 11-12. 25. www.rajpolice.nic.in 26. www.rpa.nic.in 27. The Gore Committee Report on Police Training (1971). Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India. 28. Police Organisation in India (2003). Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, New-Delhi. 29. Ibid 28. 30. Rajasthan Police: Indoor Training Material (Part-A & B). 2011-12. Training Director, Rajasthan Police Headquarter, Jaipur. 31. Rajasthan Police: Outdoor Training Material (Part-C). 2011-12. Training Director, Rajasthan Police Headquarter, Jaipur.

31

Review of Literature, Objectives Hypothesises Variables Research Design Sampling Inclusion & Exclusion Criteria Data Collection Tools Procedure Scoring Statistical Analysis

Chapter -2

2.

Research Methodology

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The ultimate success of any training programme is dependent upon a wise and dynamic recruitment policy. Training, to an extent, can make up for some deficiencies in the recruit, as one experienced officer has put it, but it cannot rectify the original error. Training has an important role to play for police personnel in framing behavioural and attitudinal changes. The role of police is regularly undergoing change to keep consonance with the aspirations of the people. The training becomes essential not only for the police department but for the society as a whole. Police training programs are a basic attribute of all police forces‟ organizational approach, with training used not only to socialise new officers into the profession but as a strategy of modification in cases when a force is not up to the expected standard of professionalism (Mastrofski & Ritti, 1996).1 A study carried out by the Director, National Police Academy, Sankar Sen showed that IPS trainees of a higher age group (at present the upper age limit is 28 instead of 24 in the past) find it tricky to cope with the stress and strain imposed by a rigorous 32

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Research Methodology

training programme. Some of them arrive with frozen attitudes and a negative approach emphasized during the training.2 Police Training often aims to affect attitudes as a way of affecting skills & behaviour. There is an assumption of a casual pathway, in which changing knowledge and attitudes are a step towards behaviour change (Mastrofski, Worden, & Snipes, 1995) 3 or more generally in professionals‟ behaviour change (Cabana et al., 1999). 4 Herzog (2002) demonstrates that the deviant personality perspective is inappropriate when examining Israeli police violence, and that the phenomenon is best understood as group behaviour. Following this argument, Herzog suggests that the way to deal with these behaviours is through the development of preventive educational training programs for all police officers. This approach sees training as a possible site for organizational socialization towards democratic policing. 5 Police behaviour, and more specifically police misconduct, is explained by three types of theories: sociological, psychological and organizational (Sklansky, 2008). 6

33

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2.1.2 Stress, Personality, Emotional Intelligence and Happiness Police services have always been one of the most tough and stressful services in India and with changing times it is becoming even more so. The major brunt of this job is borne by constables as they are the footsoldiers of police in India. They have to deal with angry mobs, counterinsurgency operations, traffic control, VIP security, political rallies, religious festival crowd control, and various other law and order duties without losing their composure and sensitivity. They have to face potentially hazardous situations that can result in physical or mental trauma or even death in the line of duty. Their work stress can be further aggravated because of their personality traits or wrong coping methods. A majority of Indian and international studies have found high stress levels in police, which is disturbing as psychiatric morbidity in police can have many direct and indirect negative consequences for society. Therefore, apart from physical fitness, they have to be mentally fit to do full justice to their duties.

John Van Maanen (1975) also stressed that the police personality is developed through the process of learning and doing police work.7 The characteristics usually associated with police personalities in present times are machismo, bravery, authoritarianism, cynicism and aggression. Additional characteristics have been associated with police personalities 34

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as well: suspicious, solidaristic, conservative, alienated and thoroughly bigoted (Balch, 1977). 8 Hanewicz (1978) begins his effort to describe police personality by first defining personality by using Thomas Gray’s (1975) concept of affinity: “ …a tendency to adhere partially to a set of distinctive sentiments that can be expanded and reinforced by training and socialization.” Hanewicz identifies two major positions: 1. The police personality is something that police possess by virtue of their being police; or 2. The police personality is something that people have who become police.9

According to the psychological paradigm, police officers share certain characteristics in advance that make them choose a career within law enforcement (Vastola, 1978).

10

The researches done by Edward

Thibault, Lawrence M. Lynch, and R. Bruce McBride found that in most studies the police working personality derives from the socialization process in the police academy, field training, and patrol experience (Thibault et al., 1985). 11

The statement “cops are born and not made” shows the psychological paradigm better (Bonifacio, 1991, p. 147). 12

35

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Empirical evidence is pointing to the organizational framework as more relevant to explaining behaviour, as opposed to personality-oriented explanations (Skolnic & Fyfe, 1993) 13.

As people possess certain stable personality characteristics that endure throughout life the personality characteristics that officers entail before they join the police, form the basis of the police personality. (Kappeler et al., 1994) 14

Gershon et al. (2002) reported that the most essential risk factor in a police officer's perceived work stress was maladaptive coping behavior and exposure to critical occurrences. 15

Collins et al. (2003) in a cross-sectional study on county police constables and sergeants in the United Kingdom found that the highstress group composed 41% of the population and showed considerable alliance with having negative job perception. 16

An article on “Police Stress Research” prepared by a NIOSH working group, The Indian Police Journal (2004), discloses that according to the National Police Suicide Foundation, every 22 hours, a police officer in America takes his or her own life. This leads to the inevitable conclusion 36

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that police officers are not able to cope adequately with job-related stress.17

Hoque et al., 2004, has been shown that there is a negative impact upon police officer engagement and job outcomes on their emotions. While much research has shown that the emotional intelligence of police officers has an impact upon their work outcomes. 18

To do jobs effectively, entry level officers need organizational support which is best provided though proper training, resources, development, and leadership. Officers with high emotional intelligence (EI) will often be more successful; characteristics such as impulse control, stress tolerance, problem solving, and the ability to build and maintain interpersonal relationships have been found to be predictors of high job performance and leadership skills.

Since police work is known to be stressful, recent articles have questioned whether enough is being done for officers‟ well-being as some are committing suicide and suffer from post traumatic stress. Psychologists believe that in comparison with other occupations, law enforcement is an emotionally and dangerous career. Policing is a form of emotional labour and the effort involved in protecting the community, 37

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while behaving in a “client-focused” manner but restrained by fiscal constraints.

Deb et al. (2008), in a study on traffic constables under Kolkata Police, disclosed that 79.4% of them were moderately or highly stressed. 19 A study by Rao et al. (2008) on Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) personnel found 28.8% of them scoring positive for high stress on GHQ30. The study also found higher psychiatric morbidity in the high-stress group. 20

Lipp (2009) found 43% of senior Brazilian police officers under significant stress. 21 Zukauskas et al. (2009) identified in their study on police officers that consequences of stress included depression, alcoholism, physical illness, and suicide. 22

A study involving different ranks of police personnel by Ranta (2009) reported that enhancing the coping behaviour of subjects using Indian psychological techniques resulted in a significant reduction in job stress.23 A research on “Workplace stress – Factors that contribute to workplace stress”, by Maria Parkinson (2010), says that the workplace stress is becoming a major problem in today‟s society. A quarter of employees view their job as the major stress in their lives. Several factors contribute 38

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Research Methodology

to workplace stress like one factor is longer working hours. She also says that police officers reported more suicidal thoughts than the general population. Policing is an inherently psychologically stressful job where officers face danger, possible death, violence and very high demands.24

Cabarkapa (2011), in a study on military aviation crew, found neuroticism as a personality trait in correlation to job related stress and concluded that stress evaluation and certain personality characteristics examination can be used for the development of basic anti-stress programs and measures. 25

2.2 OBJECTIVES The main aim of the present research is to measure the efficacy of behavioural training module in police personnel. Major objectives are following : 1. To determine whether there is any significant difference in Stress level after training programmes in Rajasthan police. 2. To determine whether there is any significant difference in Happiness level after training programmes in Rajasthan police. 3. To determine whether there is any significant difference in Personality Factors after training programmes in Rajasthan police. 39

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Research Methodology

4. To determine whether there is any significant difference in Emotional Intelligence level after training programmes in Rajasthan police. 5. To study the difference of Stress level between male and female trainee constables. 6. To study the difference of Happiness level between male and female trainee constables. 7. To study the difference of Personality traits between male and female trainee constables. 8. To study the difference of Emotional Intelligence level between male and female trainee constables.

2.3 HYPOTHESISES

Major Hypothesises of the present study are as follow : 1. Training Programmes of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan are not

effective. 2. There is a significant difference in Stress level between male and

female trainee constables. 3. There is a significant difference in Happiness level between male

and female trainee constables. 40

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Research Methodology

4. There is a significant difference in Personality traits between male

and female trainee constables. 5. There is a significant difference in Emotional Intelligence level

between male and female trainee constables.

2.4 VARIABLES Major variables were selected for the present study is as follows1. Stress Level before and after Training Programmes 2. Happiness Level before and after Training Programmes 3. Personality Factors before and after Training Programmes I. II.

Warmth Reasoning

III.

Emotional Stability

IV.

Dominance

V.

Liveliness

VI. VII. VIII. IX. X.

Rule Consciousness Social Boldness Sensitivity Vigilance Abstractness

41

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XI. XII.

Privateness Apprehensiveness

XIII.

Openness to Change

XIV.

Self Reliance

XV.

Perfectionism

XVI.

Tension

4. Emotional Intelligence Level before and after Training Programmes I. II.

Self Awareness Empathy

III.

Self Motivation

IV.

Emotional Stability

Managing Relationships V.

Integrity

VI.

Self Development

VII.

Value Orientation

VIII. IX.

Commitment Altruist Behaviour

4. Demographic Variables I. II.

Name Age

42

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Research Methodology

III.

Sex

IV.

Marital Status

V.

Qualification

2.5 RESEARCH DESIGN Research design is the most crucial aspect in the smooth and successful conduction of any research work. It serves as a blue print. The implicit purpose of all research designs is to improve controlled restriction on observation of natural phenomena. It has been found that the chances of arriving at accurate and valid conclusions are better with sound research design. Research design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived. So as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance. Pre Test

Training Module

T1, T2, T3, T4 to be

administered

before Program

Training

1) Human

Post Test Personalities: T1, T2, T3,

Types of Personalities, T4 Importance

to

be

of administered

Personalities in Police after 9 months personnel,

Steps

to Training

improve Personality

Program

43

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Research Methodology

2) Stress

Management:

Factors causing stress in Police

working,

impact and

on its

Its

Personality management,

Relaxing measures from stress, Controlling anger and aggression at work

T1: Stress Level T2: Happiness Level T3: Personality Factors T4: Emotional Intelligence Level 2.6 SAMPLING The “Sample” is taking any portion of a population or universe, so that each member of the population or universe has an equal chance of being selected to make it representative of that population.

44

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In the present research Purposive sampling technique was used. The study was conducted on 500 Constable Trainees from Rajasthan Police Academy, Jaipur.

2.7 INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA 2.7.1 Inclusion Criteria i.

Age range between18-25 years.

ii.

Only Trainee Constables were included.

iii.

Minimum Educational Status senior secondary.

iv.

The sample was drawn from Rajasthan police Academy, Jaipur.

v.

The area of research was Rajasthan Police Academy, Jaipur.

2.7.2 Exclusion Criteria i.

R.P.S. and S.I. Trainees were not included.

ii.

The area of research was not out of the Rajasthan Police Academy, Jaipur.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION The

Primary

data

was

collected

questionnaires. 45

through

administering

the

Chapter -2

Research Methodology

The secondary data was collected from departmental reports, publications and websites. The secondary data was also collected from various newspapers and publications related to the topic of the study.

2.9 TOOLS 2.9.1 Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) The perceived stress scale is the most widely used psychological instrument for measuring perception of stress (Cohen, 1983). It is a measure of the degree to which situations in one‟s life are appraised as stressful. Items are designed to tap how unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded people find their lives. The scale also includes a number of direct queries about cu levels of experienced stress. The PSS is designed for use in community samples with at least a junior high school education. The items are easy to understand and the response alternatives are simple to grasp. Moreover, the questions are of general nature and hence are relatively free of content specific to any subpopulation group. Questions in PSS ask about feelings and thoughts during last month. In each case, respondents are asked how often they felt a certain way.

46

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2.9.2 Oxford Happiness Questionnaire(OHQ) To measure happiness Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) developed by Hills and Argyle (2002) is used. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire has been derived from the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). A more instrument, Oxford Happiness Questionnaire includes 29 items, each presented as a single statement, which can be endorsed on a uniform sex-point Likert Scale. The responses to the items are scored on a 6-point scale: (1) Strongly Agree, (2) Moderately Agree, (3) Slightly Agree, (4) Slightly Disagree, (5) Moderately Disagree, (6) Strongly Disagree. The scale possesses a high scale alpha reliability of 0.91. The inter-item correlations for the OHQ ranged from -0.04 to 0.65. The personality variables correlate very strongly with OHQ (Argyle and Hills, 2002). In terms of construct validity, OHQ appears to be the preferred measure in terms of its construct validity (Argyle and Hills, 2002). 2.9.3 PF (Hindi Version) The 16 personality factor questionnaire (16PF) is an objectively scorable test devised by basic research in psychology to give the most complete coverage of personality possible in brief time. The test was designed for use with individuals age sixteen and above. These sixteen dimensions or

47

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scales are essentially independent. Any item of the test contributes to the score on one and only one factor so the no dependencies were introduced at the level of scale construction. The personality of the trainee constables was measured through standard questionnaire 16 PF Personality inventory of Dr. S.D. Kapoor Hindi version was utilized in the collection of data. This inventory was very lengthy in itself. They had to fill a separate answer sheet after reading the questions from the questionnaire. After duration of an hour, the question booklets and answer sheets were collected. Researcher used utensil provided with the test for scoring the stens score of all 16 factors separately. The capsule descriptions of the sixteen factors are as follows. Factor A (Warmth) Reserved, detached, critical, Cool

Outgoing, Warmhearted, Easy going, participating

The person who scores low on factor „A‟tends to be stiff, cool skeptical, and aloof. He likes things rather than people, working alone, and avoiding compromises of view points. He is likely to be precise and „rigid‟ in this way of doing things and in personal standards, and in many occupations these are desirable traits. He may tend at times to be critical, obstructive or hard.

The person who scores high on factor „A‟tend to be good natured and easy going, emotionally expressive, ready to cooperate, attentive to people, soft hearted, kindly adaptable. He likes occupations dealing with people and socially impressive situations. He ready forms active groups. He is generous in personal relations, less afraid of criticism, better able to remember names of people.

48

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Research Methodology Factor B (Reasoning)

Less intelligent, concrete thinking The person scoring low in factor B tends to be slow to learn and grasp dull, given to concrete and literal interpretation. His dullness may be simply a reflection of low intelligence, or it may represent poor functioning due to psychopathology.

More intelligent, abstract thinking, Bright The person who cores high on Factor B tends to grasp ideas, a fast learner, intelligent. There is some correlation of culture, and some with alertness. High scores contra indicate deterioration of metal functions in pathological conditions.

Factor C (Emotional Stability) Affected by feelings, emotionally less stable, easily upset

Emotionally stable, Faces reality, clam Mature.

The person who score low in factor C tends to be low in frustration, tolerance for unsatisfactory conditions, changeable and plastic, evading necessary reality demands, neurotically fatigued, fretful, easily emotional and annoyed, active in dissatisfaction, having neurotic symptoms (phobias, sleep, disturbances, psychosomatic complaints etc.) Low factor C is common in almost in all forms of neurotic and some psychotic disorders

The person who scores high on Factor C tends to be emotionally mature, stable, realistic about life, unruffled, possessing, ego strength, better able to maintain solid group morale. Some times he may be a person making a resigned adjustment to unsolved emotional problems.

Factor E (Dominance) Humble, mild, accommodating, conforming The person who scores low in Factor E tends to give a way to others, to be docile, and to conform. He is often dependent, anxious for obsession correctness. This passivity is part of many neurotic syndromes.

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Assertive, Independent, aggressive competitive Stubborn The person who scores high in Factor E is assertive, self assured and independent minded. He tends to be austere, a law to himself, hostile or extra punitive, authoritarian, and disregards authority.

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Sober, prudent, abstract, serious, and Taciturn

Happy-go-lucky, Impulsive lively, Enthusiastic

The person who scores low in factor F tends to be restrained, reticent, and introspective. He is sometimes dour, pessimistic, unduly deliberate & considered smug and primly correct by observers. He tends to be a sober, dependable.

The person who scores high in Factor tends to be cheerful active, talkative, frank, expressive, effervescent, and carefree. He is frequently chosen as an elected leader. He may be impulsive and mercurial.

Factor G (Rule Consciousness) Expedient, Ecades rules, Feels Few Obligations

Conscientious, Persevering, staid, rule bound

The person who scores low on factor G tends to be unsteady in purpose. He is often casual lacking in comfort for group undertaking and cultural demands. His freedom from group influence many lead to anti social acts, but at times makes him more effective, while his refusal to be bound by rules causes him to have less somatic upset from stress.

The person who scores high in factor G tends to be exacting in character, dominated by sense of duty, preserving, responsible, painful, “fills fills the unforgiving minute”. He is usual conscientious and moralistic and he prefers hard working people to witty companions. The inner “categorical imperative” of this essential superego (in the psychoanalytical sense) should be distinguished from the superficially similar “social ideal self” of Q+.

Factor H (social Boldness) Shy, Restrained, diffident, Timid

The person who scores low in this trait tends to be shy, withdrawing, cautious, retiring, a „Wallflower‟. He usually has inferiority feeling. He tends to be slow and impeded in speech and in expressing himself, dislikes occupations with 50

Venturesome, socially-bold, Uninhibited, spontaneous The person who scores high on factor H is sociable, bold, ready to try new things, spontaneous and abundant in emotional response. His thick skinned ness enables him to face wear and tear in dealing

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personal contacts, prefer one or two close friends to large groups, and is not given to keeping in contact with all that is on around them.

with people and grueling emotional situations, without fatigue. However he can be careless of detail ignore danger signals, and consume much time talking. He tends to be pushy and actively interested in the opposite sex.

Factor I (Sensitivity) Tough minded, self-reliant , realistic,

Tender minded , dependent overprotected, sensitive

no nonsense The person who scores low on factor I tends to be practical, realistic, masculine,independent , responsible, but skeptical of subjective cultural elaborations. He is sometimes unmoved, hard, cynical, and smug. He tends to keep a group operating on a practical and realistic no-nonsense basis.

The person who scores high in factor G tends to be tender minded, day dreaming, artistic, fastidious, and feminine. He is sometimes demanding of attentions and help, impatient, dependent, impractical. H dislikes crude people and rough occupations. He tends to slow up grow performance and to upset group morale by unrealistic fussiness.

Factor L (Vigilance) Trusting, adaptable, Free of jealously, easy to get on with

Suspicious, self opinionated, hard to fool

The person who scores low on factor L tends to free of jealous tendencies, adaptable, cheerful, un-competitive, concerned about other people, a good team worker.

The person who scores high on factor L tends to be mistrusting and doubt full. He is often involved in his own ego, is self opinionated, and interested in internal mental life. He is usually deliberate in his actions, unconcerned about other people, a poor team member.

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Factor M (Abstractness) Practical, careful, conventional, regulated by external realities, Proper

Imaginative, Wrapped up in Inner urgencies, careless of practical matters, absent minded.

The person who scores low on factor M tends to be anxious to do the right things, attentive to practical matters, and subject to the dictation of what is obviously possible. He is concerned over detail, able to keep his head in emergencies, but sometimes unimaginative.

The person who scores high on factor M tends to be unconventional over every day matters, Bohemian, self motivated, imaginatively creative, concerned with „essentials‟ and oblivious of particular people and physical realities. His inner directed interests sometimes lead to unrealistic situations accompanied by expressive overbrust. His individuality tends to cause to be rejected in group activities.

Factor N (Privateness) Forthright, Natural, Artless,

Shrewd, Calculating,

Sentimental

Worldly,Penetrating

The person who scores low on factor N tends to be unsophisticated, sentimental and simple. He is sometimes crude and awkward, but easily pleased and content with what comes, and is natural and spontaneous.

The person who scores high in factor N tends to be polished, experienced, worldly, and shrewd. He is often hardhead and analytical. He has an intellectual, unsentimental approach to situations, an approach akin to cynicism.

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Placid, Self assured, Confident,

Apprehensive, Worrying, Depressive, Troubled

Serene The person who scores low on factor Q1 tends to be confident in what he has been taught to believe, and accepts the “tried and true” despites inconsistencies, when something else might better. He is cautious and compromising in regard to new ideas. Thus , he tends to oppose and postpone change, is inclined to go along with tradition, is more conservative in religion and politics, tends not to be interested in analytical “intellectual” thought.

The person who scores high in factor Q1 tends to be interested in intellectual matters and has doubt on fundamental issues. He is skeptical and inquiring regarding ideas, either old or new. He tends to be more well informed, less incline or moralize , more incline to experiment in life generally, and more tolerant of inconvenience and change.

Factor Q2 (Self Reliance) Group dependent, A „Joiner‟ and sound Follower

Self sufficient, prefer own decisions, resourceful

The person who scores low on factor Q2 tends to be preferred to work and make decisions with other people, like and depends on social approval and admiration. He tends to go along with the group and may be lacking in individual resolution. He is not necessarily gregarious by choice; rather he needs group support.

The person who scores high in factor Q2 temperamentally independent, accustomed to going in his own way, making decisions and taking actions in his own. He discounts public opinion, but is not necessarily dominant in his relation with others. He does not dislike people but simply does not need their agreement or support.

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Indiscipline self-conflict, careless of protocol, follows own urges

Controlled, Socially precise, Following, Self image.

The person who scores low on factor Q3 will not be bothered with will control and regard for social demands. He is not overly considerate careful, or paintaking. He may feel maladjusted ,and may maladjustment (especially the effective but not the paranoid) show Q3.

The person who scores high in factor Q3 tends to be have strong control on his emotions and general behaviour, is inclined to be socially aware and careful, and evidence what is commonly termed as “self respect” and regard for social reputation. He sometimes tends, however, to be obstinate. Effective leaders and come paranoids, are high on Q3.

Factor Q4 (Tension) Relaxed, Tranquil, Torpid,

Tense, Frustrated, Driven,

Unfrustrated

overwrought

The person who scores low on factor Q4 tends to be sedate, relaxed, composed, and satisfied. In some situations, his over satisfaction can lead to laziness and low performance, in the sense that low motivation produces little trail and error. Conversely, high tension level may disrupt school and work performance.

The person who scores high in factor Q1 tends to be tense, excitable, restless, fretful, and impatient. He is often fatigued, but unable to remain inactive. In groups he takes a poor view of the degree of unity, orderliness, and leadership. His frustration represents an excess of stimulated, but undercharged, drive.

2.9.4 Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) Emotional Intelligence Scale is developed by Hyde, Pethe and Dhar (2002). This scale has 34 statements in total and for each

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statement there are five alternatives given. It consists of ten dimensions of emotional intelligence which are as follows. Dimensions Item Number Self Awareness (V14) 2,8, 14, 20 Empathy (V15) 5. 12, 18, 26, 12,18,24,30 Self Motivation (V16) 1,7,13,19,25,31 Emotional Stability (V17) 3,9,15,21 Managing Relationships (V18) 4, 10,16,22 Integrity (V19) 5,11,17 Self development (V20) 26,32 Value Orientation (V21) 27,33 Commitment (V22) 28, 34 Altruistic Behaviour (V23) 23, 29

The questionnaire is a five-point scale, (Strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree and strongly disagree). This scale is available in two languages English as well as Hindi.

The reliability of the scale was determined by calculating reliability coefficient on a sample of 200 subjects. The split half reliability coefficient was found to be 0.88. The scale has high content validity which is 0.93. 2.10 PROCEDURE The present research is to study the differences of Stress level, Emotional Intelligence, Personality and Happiness level of trainee constables before and after their training at Rajasthan Police Academy, Jaipur. Purposive random sampling technique was used. 55

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Questionnaires were employed simultaneously to measure the differences of Stress level, Emotional Intelligence, Personality and Happiness level of trainee constables before and after their training. A good rapport was established. The respondents were requested to first fill the questionnaire related to demographic variables. Although all the tests are self administering, instructions were read and explained aloud and made clear. All the doubts regarding the tests were cleared beforehand.

2.11 SCORING 2.11.1 Stress (Perceived Stress Scale) PSS This test consists of 10 statements. Each item had five response alternatives. 0 = never 1 = almost never 2 = sometimes 3 = fairly often 4 = very often

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All the items were scored this way except for four positively stated items (item number 4,5,7 and 8), which were scored in a reverse order (4,3,2,1,0) means 0 equivalent to 4, 1 equivalent to 3, 2 equivalent 2 and 4 equivalent to 0.

Interpretation of Scores:

Scores

Interpretation

7 and above

High level of stress

4-6

Moderate level of stress

0-3

Low level of stress

2.11.2 Oxford Happiness Questionnaire The scale used is a uniform six-point Likert Scale, the responses to the items are scored on a 6-point scale: (1) strongly agree, (2) moderately agree, (3) slightly agree, (4) slightly disagree, (5) moderately disagree, (6) strongly disagree. Higher scores indicate a broad measure of happiness. There is reserve scoring for the * (starred) items. The responses given by each trainee constable was added up to yield a total score and then divided by 29.

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Interpretation of Scores: Range of Scores 1-6) Scores

Interpretation

4.3 and above

High level of happiness

3-4

Moderate level of happiness

1-2

Low level of happiness

2.11.3 Sixteen PF Each answer scores 0, 1 or 2 points, except the Factor N (intelligence) answers which score 0 (incorrect) or 1 (correct). The score of each item contribute to only one factor total. Tests can be either hand scored, with a stencil key, or machine scored. 2.11.4 Emotional Intelligence Scale The scale consists ten dimensions of emotional intelligence as well as overall emotional intelligence. There are five possible responses, Strongly Agree (5), Agree (4), Uncertain (3), Disagree (2) and Strongly Disagree (1). The responses given by each trainee constable was added up. Finally for each dimension and overall score of emotional intelligence were calculated.

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2.12 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS All the responses were scored on the basis of scoring procedure as given in the manual of these tests. Statistical tools like t-test analysis of differences between means of different subscales was undertaken to derive results for measuring Stress, Happiness, Personality and Emotional Intelligence of trainee constables.

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REFRENCES and NOTES 1. Mastrofski, Stephen D. & R. Richard Ritti. (1996). “Police Training and the Effects of Organization on Drunk Driving Enforcement”. Justice Quarterly 13:291-320. 2. http://www.india-seminar.com/1999/483/483%20sankar%20sen.htm 3. Mastrofski, Stephen D., Robert E. Worden and Jeffrey B. Snipes. (1995). “Law Enforcement in a Time of Community Policing”. Criminology 33:539-563. 4. Cabana et al. (1999). “Why Don't Physicians Follow Clinical Practice Guidelines?”. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 282(15), 1458 -1465. doi:10.1001. 5. Herzog, S. (2002). “Police Violence in Israel: Has the Establishment of a Civilian Complaints Board Made a Difference?”. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 3(2), 119. doi:10.1080/15614260290033620 6. Sklansky, D. A. (2008). Democracy and the Police. Stanford University Press. 7. Maanen, J.V. (1975). “Police Socialization: A Longitudinal Examination of Job Attitudes in an Urban Police Department”. Administrative Science Quarterly: Vol.20, N0. 2. 207-228. 8. Balch, R. (1977). “The Police Personality: Fact or Fiction. In D.B. Kennedy (Ed.). The Dysfunctional Alliance: Emotion and Reason in Justice Administration. Cincinnati. OH: Anderson Publishing Company. 10-25. 9. Hanewicz, W. B. (1978). “Police Personality: A Jungian Perspective”. Crime & Delinquency.24(2). 152-172 10. Vastola, A. (1978). “The Police Personality: An Alternative Explanatory Model”. The Police Chief, 45(4). 50-52. 11. Thibault, et. Al. (1985). Proactive Police Management. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall. 12. Bonifacio, P. (1991). The Psychological Effects of Police Work. New York: Plenum Press. 13. Skolnick, J &. H.;Fyfe, J.J. (1993). Above the Law: Police and the Excessive Use of Force. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-02-929312. 14. Kappeler et al.. (1994). Forces of Deviance: Understanding the Dark Side of Policing. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press. 15. Gershon, R. R., Lin, S., & Li, X. B. (2002). “Work Stress in Aging Police Officers”. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 44, 160-167. 16. Collins, P. A et al. (2003). “Stress in Police Officers: A Study of the Origins, Prevalence and Severity of Stress‐Related Symptoms Within a County Police Force”. Occupational Medicine, 53(4). 256. 60

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17. NIOSH working group. “Police Stress Research”. The Indian Police Journal, (2004). 18. Hoque, Z., Arends, S., & Alexander, R. (2004). “Policing the Police Service: A Case Study of the Rise of New Public Management within an Australian Police Service”. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 17. 59-84. 19. Deb et al. (2008). “Job-Related Stress, Causal Factors and Coping Strategies of Traffic Constables”. J Indian Acad Appl Psychol, Indian J Psychol Med.;30, 39–47. 20. Rao et al .(2008). “A Study and Psychiatric Morbidity in the Central Industrial Security Force”. Indian J Psychol Med; 30:39-44. 21. Lipp, M.E. (2009). “Stress and quality of life of Senior Brazilian Police Officers”. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12. 593-603. 22. Zukauskas et. al (2009). “A Study of Stress Affecting Police Officers in Lithuania”. Int J Emerg Ment Health,11:205–14. 23. Ranta RS. (2009). Management of Stress and Coping Behaviour of Police Personnel Through Indian Psychological Techniques”. J Indian Acad Appl Sci. ;35:47–53. 24. Parkinson, M. (2010). “Work Place Stress – Factors that Contribute to Work Place Stress”. Enzime Articles. 25. Cabarkapa et al. (2011). “Personal Traits and A Sense of Job-Related Stress in a Military Aviation Crew”. Vojnosanit Pregl; 68:143-9.

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Introduction Causes of work related stress Types of stress Theories of stress Theories of psychological stress at work

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3. STRESS Modern living has brought with it, not only innumerable means of comfort, but also a plethora of demands that tax human body and mind. Now-a-days everyone talks about stress.

It is cutting across all socio economic groups of population and becoming the great leveller. Not only just high pressure executives are its key victims but it also includes labourers, slum dwellers, working women, businessmen, professionals and even children. Stress is an inevitable and unavoidable component of life due to increasing complexities and competitiveness in living standards. The speed at which change is taking place in the world today is certainly overwhelming and breathe taking. In the fast changing world of today, no individual is free from stress and no profession is stress free. Everyone experiences stress, whether it is within the family, business, organization, study, work, or any other social or economical activity. Thus in modern time, stress in general and job stress in particular has become a part of the life and has received considerable attention in recent years. Stress has become the core concern in the life of everyone, but everybody wants stress-free life. Stress is a subject which is hard to avoid. Stress is a part of day-today living. Every individual is subjected to stress either knowingly or unknowingly. Stress, long 62

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considered alien to Indian lifestyle, is now a major health problem / hazard. Stress is difficult to define precisely.

3.1 INTRODUTION The concept of stress was first introduced in the life sciences by Selye Hans in 1936. It was derived from the Latin word ‗stringere‘; it meant the experience of physical hardship, starvation, torture and pain. Selye Hans, 1936 defined stress as ―the non-specific response of the body to any demand placed upon it‖. 1 Further, stress was defined as ―any external event or internal drive which threatens to upset the organism equilibrium‖ (Selye Hans, 1956).2 Lazarus (1966) referred stress a state of imbalance with in an organism that is elicited by an actual/perceived disparity between environmental demands and the organism‘s capacity to cope with these demands; and is manifested through variety of physiological, emotional and behavioural responses.3

McGrath (1970) defined stress as a perceived imbalance between demand and response capacity under conditions where failure to meet demand has important consequences.4

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Another definition given by Stephen Robbins,1999

stress has been

stated as ―a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand related to what he / she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.‖5

Stress affects not only our physical health but our mental well being, too. To successfully manage stress in everyday lives, individual can learn to relax and enjoy life. The best way to manage stress is to prevent it. This may not be always possible. So, the next best things are to reduce stress and make life easier.

Stress refers to any environmental, organizational and individual or internal demands, which require the individual to readjust the usual behaviour pattern. Degree of stress results from events or situations that have potential to cause change. Stimuli or situations that can result in the experience of stress are called stressors. There are three major sources of stress- environmental, individual and organizational.

Environmental stress is not only caused by the factors intrinsic to job, but also influenced by the environmental or extra organizational factors. Stress results because of the individual‘s interaction with environmental 64

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stimuli or factors such as societal or technological changes, political and economical uncertainties, financial condition, community conditions etc.

The stress which an individual experiences in an environment is carried with him in another environment also, thus increasing the stress and causing stress to others also.

There are many factors at the level of individual which may be generated in the context of organizational life or his personal life like life and career change, personality types, role characteristics. Any change in career life of an individual puts him in disequilibrium state of affairs and he is required to bring equilibrium. In this process individual experiences stress.

Personality type / characteristic such as authoritarianism, rigidity, masculinity, femininity, extroversion, spontaneity, locus of control are particularly relevant to individual stress. When people become members of several system like family, voluntary organization, work organization etc., they are expected to fulfil certain obligations to each system and to fit into defined places in the system. These various roles may have

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conflicting demands and people experiences role stress as they are not able to fulfil the conflicting demands or requirements.

Stress has been considered as one of the major factors in work organization (Agrawal et al., 1979).6 Sources of stressors in the employment organization identified by Pestonjee (1992) are work, role, personal development, interpersonal relations and organization climate. 7

Work which requires a lot of manual dexterity have a greater chance of inducing stress in the worker who work there. Work in the organization can induce stressors when the activities to be performed are either too difficult and complex or repetitive and monotonous.

Uncomfortable working conditions extract extra energies from the worker. Stress is inevitable / unavoidable, when large amount of work is expected beyond the capacities of the worker and work has to be performed keeping in view the set deadlines. The five aspects related to stressors intrinsic to work like, boredom, physical working conditions, time pressure and deadlines, work demands, job design and technical problems.

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Role can be a source of stress when there is ambiguity about job responsibility and limits of authority, role set members have conflicting expectations on the way in which a role should be performed. Thus, role in terms of its normative, interpersonal and self congruence aspect can give rise to stress.

Major clusters of potential stressors identified to measure personal development stressors in the employment organization were over promotion, under promotion, role stagnation, job security, ambitions, success and gender discrimination.

The kind of relationship the role incumbent has with members in the organization determines the level of interpersonal relations stressor he or she experiences. Relationship with boss, peers and subordinates were the three aspects included under this stressor component.

The climate that persists in the organization can be potential source of stressors. The freedom given to plan the work, weightage given to the views and opinions, participation in decision making, sense of belonging, free and fair communication and sympathetic approach towards personal

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problems were considered to measure the stressors in organizational climate.

It is interesting to note that, stress has two faces. It is a good servant, but a bad master. In other words, it can be one‘s best friend or worst enemy. A certain amount of stress is necessary to achieve success, but undue stress causes distress. Although we tend to think of stress as caused by external events, events in themselves are not stressful. Rather it is the way in which an individual interpret and react to events that makes them stressful. Stress is received by different people differently. If two people experience the same amount stress or pressure, one may take it as positive or healthy types or the other may accept it as negative.

Stress is often referred to as having negative connotation. The calamitous consequences of stress can affect an individual in three ways i.e. physiological, psychological and behavioural.

Mental stress may be accompanied by anger, anxiety, depression, nervousness, irritability, tension and boredom. Physical stress is accompanied by high blood pressure, digestive problem, ulcers and indigestion, palpitation, chest pain, skin disorder muscle tension, head 68

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ache, loss of appetite, restlessness, ulcers, shut down of menstrual cycle, impairment of fertility among male and depletion of vitamin C,B and D in the body. Behavioural

Stress may be symphonized in the behaviour such a overeating or under eating, loneliness, Sleeplessness, absent seem, alcohol consumption, increased smoking and drug abuse.

Further the stress can affect either positively or negatively to employee performance. Positive qualities are those in which the individual may feel more excited and agitated and perceive the situation positively as a form of challenge (Selye, 1956).8 Stress is also described as posing threat to the quality of work life as well as physical and psychological well-being (Cox, 1978).9 A high level of occupational stress, not only detrimentally influence the quality, productivity and creativity of the employees but also employee‘s health, well being and morale (Cohen and Williamson, 1991).10 Job related stress tends to decrease general job satisfaction. Stress can be either temporary or long term, mild or severe, depending mostly on how long it continues, how powerful they are and how strong the employee‘s recovery powers are. But major stress problems are sustained for long period. If one does not react to the stress, it may create 69

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some other Trauma. It is another severe form of stress. The nature of loss may have an effect on the individual‘s perception of the stressful events as well as the avoidance, intrusion and hyper arousal symptoms of post traumatic stress.

3.2 CAUSES OF WORK-RELATED STRESS Working is usually positive because it gives your life structure and can often provide satisfaction. A certain amount of pressure at work is usually a good thing. It can help to perform better and prepares for challenges and actions. Sometimes, though, if pressure and demands become too much, they can lead to work-related stress.

Work-related stress can be caused by a number of things. One might feel under pressure at work because of an excessive workload or unrealistic deadlines. Or may have a difficult working environment due to issues with your colleagues. It may also be due to a combination of factors in work and personal life.

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3.2.1 Work-related stressors a. Overload This is the extent to which individuals feel that the demands of their workload and the associated time pressures are a source of pressure, for example: 

unrealistic deadlines and expectations, often as a result of super achievement by the most talented



technology overload



unmanageable workloads



under recruitment of staff for work already timetabled

b. Control The experience of pressure is strongly linked to perceptions of control. Lack of influence and consultation in the way in which work is organized and performed can be a potential source of pressure, for example: 

lack of control over aspects of the job



lack of involvement in decision making



account not taken of staff ideas/suggestions about the job



lack of influence over performance targets



lack of time 71

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c. Work relationships Many jobs demand regular contact with other people at work. Poor or unsupportive relationships with colleagues and/or supervisors can be a potential source of pressure. In addition, pressure can occur if individuals feel isolated or unfairly treated. Poor work relationships can be a result of: 

aggressive management style



lack of support from others



isolation at work



aversive behaviour, e.g. bullying and harassment



lack of understanding and leadership



manager forever finding fault



others not pulling their weight



others take credit for personal achievements



poor relationships with colleagues

d. Job security This is the extent to which lack of job security and job changes are a source of pressure, for example:

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job insecurity



lack of job permanence, e.g. temporary/fixed term contracts



future job change



fear of skill redundancy

e. Work-life balance The demands of work have the potential to spill over and affect personal and home life and so put a strain on relationships outside work, for example: 

long hours: being expected to or having to work additional hours at home to the detriment of personal, partner and family relationships



over-demanding and inflexible work schedules



unsocial hours



excessive travel time



work interfering with home/personal life

f. Resources and communication To perform a job effectively, individuals need to feel that they have appropriate training, equipment and resources. They also need to feel that

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they are adequately informed and that they are valued. Stress may result from lack of: 

information about what is going on in the organisation



feedback on performance



adequate training to do the job



equipment/resources to do the job

g. Pays and benefits The financial rewards associated with a job are important in terms of lifestyle. They are also often perceived to be an indication of an individual's

worth

and

value

to

the

organisation.

Although

financial reward may not be a prime motivator, it could become a factor if there are other negative aspects of the job.

h. Aspects of the job These are potential sources of stress that relate to the fundamental nature of the job itself. Factors such as the physical working conditions, type of tasks and the amount of satisfaction derived from the job. 

job is unlikely to change in the next 5–10 years



poor physical working conditions 74

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fear of physical violence



work performance closely monitored



organisation changes for change's sake



dull and repetitive work



dealing with difficult customers/clients



lack of enjoyment of job

3.3 TYPES OF STRESS Stress management can be complicated and confusing because there are different types of Stress— acute stress, episodic acute stress, and chronic stress; each with its own characteristics, symptoms, duration and treatment approaches.

3.3.1 Acute Stress Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting. A fast run down a challenging ski slope, for example, is exhilarating early in the day. That same ski run late in the day is taxing and wearing. Skiing beyond your limits can lead to falls and 75

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broken bones. By the same token, overdoing on short-term stress can lead to psychological distress, tension headaches, upset stomach and other symptoms.

Fortunately, acute stress symptoms are recognized by most people. It's a laundry list of what has gone awry in their lives: the auto accident that crumpled the car fender, the loss of an important contract, a deadline they're rushing to meet, and their child's occasional problems at school and so on.

Because it is short term, acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. The most common symptoms are: Emotional distress — some combination of anger or irritability, anxiety and depression, the three stress emotions. Muscular problems including tension headache, back pain, jaw pain and the muscular tensions that lead to pulled muscles and tendon and ligament problems. Stomach, gut and bowel problems such as heartburn, acid stomach, flatulence, diarrheal, constipation.

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Transient over arousal leads to elevation in blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, sweaty palms, heart palpitations, dizziness, migraine headaches, cold hands or feet, shortness of breath and chest pain. Acute stress can crop up in anyone's life, and it is highly treatable and manageable.

3.3.2 Episodic acute stress There are those, however, who suffer acute stress frequently, whose lives are so disordered that they are studies in chaos and crisis. They're always in a rush, but always late. If something can go wrong, it does. They take on too much, have too many irons in the fire, and can't organize the slew of self-inflicted demands and pressures clamouring for their attention. They seem perpetually in the clutches of acute stress.

It is common for people with acute stress reactions to be over aroused, short-tempered, irritable, anxious and tense. Often, they describe themselves as having "a lot of nervous energy." Always in a hurry, they tend to be abrupt, and sometimes their irritability comes across as hostility. Interpersonal relationships deteriorate rapidly when others respond with real hostility. The workplace becomes a very stressful place for them. 77

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The cardiac prone, "Type A" personality described by cardiologists, Meter Friedman and Ray Rosenman, is similar to an extreme case of episodic acute stress. Type A's have an "excessive competitive drive, aggressiveness, impatience, and a harrying sense of time urgency." In addition there is a "free-floating, but well-rationalized form of hostility, and almost always a deep-seated insecurity." Such personality characteristics would seem to create frequent episodes of acute stress for the Type A individual. Friedman and Rosenman found Type A's to be much more likely to develop coronary heart disease than Type B's, who show an opposite pattern of behaviour.11

Another form of episodic acute stress comes from ceaseless worry. "Worry warts" see disaster around every corner and pessimistically forecast catastrophe in every situation. The world is a dangerous, unrewarding, punitive place where something awful is always about to happen. These "awfulizers" also tend to be over aroused and tense, but are more anxious and depressed than angry and hostile.

The symptoms of episodic acute stress are the symptoms of extended over arousal: persistent tension headaches, migraines, hypertension, chest pain and heart disease. Treating episodic acute stress requires intervention 78

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on a number of levels, generally requiring professional help, which may take many months.

Often, lifestyle and personality issues are so ingrained and habitual with these individuals that they see nothing wrong with the way they conduct their lives. They blame their woes on other people and external events. Frequently, they see their lifestyle, their patterns of interacting with others, and their ways of perceiving the world as part and parcel of who and what they are.

Sufferers can be fiercely resistant to change. Only the promise of relief from pain and discomfort of their symptoms can keep them in treatment and on track in their recovery program.

3.3.3 Chronic stress While acute stress can be thrilling and exciting, chronic stress is not. This is the grinding stress that wears people away day after day, year after year. Chronic stress destroys bodies, minds and lives. It wreaks havoc through long-term attrition. It's the stress of poverty, of dysfunctional families, of being trapped in an unhappy marriage or in a despised job or career. 79

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Chronic Stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. It's the stress of unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. With no hope, the individual gives up searching for solutions.

Some chronic stresses stem from traumatic, early childhood experiences that become internalized and remain forever painful and present. Some experiences profoundly affect personality. A view of the world, or a belief system, is created that causes unending stress for the individual. When personality or deep-seated convictions and beliefs must be reformulated, recovery requires active self-examination, often with professional help.

The worst aspect of chronic stress is that people get used to it. They forget it's there. People are immediately aware of acute stress because it is new; they ignore chronic stress because it is old, familiar, and sometimes, almost comfortable.

Chronic stress kills through suicide, violence, heart attack, stroke and, perhaps, even cancer. People wear down to a final, fatal breakdown. Because physical and mental resources are depleted through long-term 80

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attrition, the symptoms of chronic stress are difficult to treat and may require extended medical as well as behavioural treatment and stress management.

3.4 THEORIES OF STRESS Definitions of stress are, of course, products of their time. They produce a state of knowledge built around a research agenda that expressed the issues of the day. In this way, all definitions give us a sense of time and place, and it is through this sense that we get an understanding of why different definitions emerged, their influence on the development of theory, how we engaged in research and the way our results were interpreted.

3.4.1 Lazarus and the Transactional Model of Stress The transactional model defines stress as arising from the appraisal that particular environmental demands are about to tax individual resources, thus threatening well-being (Holroyd & Lazarus, 1982).12 This definition of stress encompasses a number of themes that capture the transactional nature of stress and those processes that best express the nature of that transaction. These themes involve the following:

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• Stress is a product of the transaction between the individual and the environment. • The authority and power of the transaction lies in the process of appraisal that binds the person and the environment and, it is this ―relational meaning‖ (Lazarus, 1999, 2001) that the person constructs from the transaction and that lies at the heart of the stress process.13 • There are two types of appraisal—primary and secondary. It is through these appraisals that the focus is shifted to what people think and do in a stressful encounter, representing a process-oriented approach (Lazarus, 1999, 2001).14 This reflects the ―the changing person–environment relationship‖ • It is the appraisal process that offers a causal pathway—a bridge to those discrete emotions that best express the nature of the stress experience (Lazarus & Cohen-Charash, 2001 ) .15

There are two types of appraisal. The first describes primary appraisal. This is where the person acknowledges that there is something at stake (Lazarus, 2001).16

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It is secondary appraisal where the focus turns to ―what can be done about it‖ (Lazarus, 1999).17 This is where the person evaluates the availability of coping resources (Lazarus, 2001).18

3.4.2 Person–Environment Fit Another theoretical model which has been in existence for a considerable amount of time, and which to a large extent has underpinned other approaches to stress and well-being is the Person–Environment Fit (P–E fi t) perspective. This account of the stress process stems from the early work and theorizing of

Lewin (1935)19 and Murray (1938).20 For example, reacting to prevailing mechanistic views of human behaviour which attributed the causes of behaviour solely to the environment, and psychodynamic approaches which tended to conceive behaviour as emerging from personality characteristics (traits), Lewin conceptualized the interaction between the person and environment (P × E) as the key to understanding people‘s cognitive, affective and behavioural reactions. His early thinking therefore provided the foundation for the modern perspective of P–E fit. In particular, he foreshadowed the notion that optimal fit between the

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person and his/her environment is needed for effective human functioning.21

3.4.3 Conservation of Resources Theory Another very popular theoretical model of the stress process is that developed by Stevan Hobfoll (1989), known as the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory. This perspective bears marked similarity with the P–E fit model, specifically in that both approaches examine the interaction of the person and the environment, and the degree of correspondence between demands in the environment and the individual‘s resources to deal with those demands.22 One key difference (outlined by Hobfoll, 2001) is that the P–E fit model focuses predominantly on people‘s perceptions of fit, whereas COR theory incorporates more objective indicators of actual fit.23 Nevertheless, there is considerable overlap between these approaches. The fundamental tenet of COR theory is that ―individuals strive to obtain, retain, protect and foster those things that they value‖ ( Hobfoll ,2001).24 That is, people endeavour to both preserve resources and to accumulate resources in order to better navigate their way through life‘s demands and challenges. A ―resource‖ is anything that is important to the person, contributes positively to their well-being and enables them to adjust. In his overview of COR theory

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and its applications, Hobfoll indicated that 74 different types of resources have been identified through research.25

Some of these are what he referred to as ―personal‖ resources, whereas others are features of the environment (external resources). Personal resources include attributes such as personal values (e.g., the importance of achievement), personality traits (e.g., internal locus of control, hardiness, dispositional optimism, generalized self-esteem) and other characteristics, including positive affect (Nelson & Simmons, 2003).26 Environmental resources will vary depending on the kind of environment the person functions in. In a work context, for example, features such having autonomy in one‘s job, the amount (and type) of feedback received on one‘s job performance, and the level of rewards obtained for successful job performance, are all illustrations of environmental resources (Hakanen, Perhoniemi, & Toppinen-Tanner, 2008).27 Social support from work colleagues and organizational support for individuals (accommodating their needs) also represent major environmental resources, which can reduce stress and burnout (Halbesleben, 2006 ) 28, as well as enhancing positive well-being (Luszczynska & Cieslak, 2005).29

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As just mentioned, a key feature of COR theory is its simultaneous consideration of both environmental elements and the individual‘s cognitions. In this theory, these dimensions are given relatively equal weight in determining whether or not the person will experience conservation of resources.

3.4.4 The Job Demands–Control–Support Model of Work Design A somewhat different, but nonetheless complementary approach to those outlined above, is a theory of work design proposed initially by Karasek (1979) and later expanded by Karasek and Theorell (1990). The initial proposition put forward by Karasek is referred to as the Job Demands– Control (JDC) Model, although the term ―discretion‖ was also used by Karasek as a synonym for control. He proposed that, although excessive job demands or pressures (both physical and psychosocial) can have an impact on stress levels (especially psychological strain), by themselves these demands are not the most important contributors to strain experiences.30

Rather, the amount of strain people experience in their work will be determined by whether or not they have any control over the demands they have to deal with. That is to say, according to Karasek (1979), there 86

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will be interactive effects of Demands × Control (or discretion) on stress levels. 31

Put another way, control will buffer (moderate) the impact of demands (pressures) on strain.

3.4.5 Different Perspectives, Different Theories Each of the theories discussed offers a different perspective for understanding

the

transaction

between

the

individual

and

the

environment. Other theories have taken up the issues of ―process.‖

For instance, the theory of stress outlined by Shupe and McGrath (2000) describes ―a dynamic, adaptive process theory‖. which, when focused at the individual level, suggests a complex cycle connected by four processes: the appraisal process (interpreting events); the choice process (the choice of a coping response); the performance process (the coping phase); and the outcome process (the consequences for the individual; Shupe & McGrath, 2000). 32 Shupe and McGrath go on to outline the complexity of these interconnected process and the implications this complexity has for researchers in terms of measurement and interpretation. 33 Similarly, Cummings and Cooper ( 2000 ) offer a 87

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―cybernetic theory‖ of work stress. The emphasis here is on time, information, and feedback. 34

3.5 THEORIES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS AT WORK These constructs are viewed as essential, and they are regarded as underlying the stress process as it moves from ―the detection of strain, through the choice of adjustment processes to cope with the threat situation, and on to the subsequent feedback about coping effects‖. Cummings and Cooper also go on to outline the complexity of the process, such as the operational and measurement issues involved as the processes moves through its four (detection, choice, adjustment, and affects) phases. 35

At the heart of this theory is the idea that ―individuals are active purposive managers of stress and that knowledge can help them anticipate and manage stress‖ (Wethington, 2000). 36

The cybernetic approach is further developed by Edwards ( 2000 ) through the idea that the goal of ―self regulating systems‖ is to regulate discrepancies

between

the

individual

and

the

environment.

37

Discrepancies are expressed in terms of a negative feedback loop, and so 88

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stress, coping and well being are crucial elements in this self-regulating process.

The idea of process as expressed through some sort of transaction between the person and the environment lies at the heart of these different theoretical approaches. This is not to say that researchers, whilst still grappling with the issues of process and transaction, have not explored and developed other theoretical approaches. We briefly turn to two of these to illustrate the continuing creative way in which the stress process has been investigated. Warr, 2007; explored the way in which work leaves us feeling happy or unhappy.38 While acknowledging the definitional

difficulties

surrounding

terms

like

happiness

and

unhappiness, and the preference at times to use the term well-being, Warr & Clapperton, 2010 suggest that happiness should be considered not just in terms of its energising and tranquil forms, but also in terms of whether it is being used in a contextual (work) sense or even a facet (work component) sense. 39

Another approach is offered by Nelson and Simmons ( 2003, 2004 ) and Simmons and Nelson ( 2007 ) ,who integrate into their holistic stress model the positive qualities of eustress and propose that the appraisal of 89

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any encounter can produce positive or negative meanings. This model ―focuses on the positive responses and their effects on performance and health‖ ( Simmons & Nelson, 2007).40 Interestingly, these authors go on to point to their concept of ―savouring the positive‖ and how this adds a new perspective on how people cope.

41

Similarly, when individual

differences are considered in terms of how they trigger positive beliefs, these authors point to how such beliefs aid individuals, create positive P.J. Dewe et al. appraisals, develop resources for managing demanding encounters, and shift the focus towards those aspects of the work environment that help create the context for positive opportunities.

42

While arguing that it is now time to include the positive as well as the negative into our theories of stress, these authors suggest that studying work stress should be ―best thought of as a constellation of theories and models that each addresses a meaningful process or phenomenon‖ ( Simmons & Nelson ,2007). 43

The different theories reflect a number of perspectives, but all offer a lens through which the person–environment transaction can be explored. Each offers a dynamic view of the stress process, emphasising the importance of the context within which the transaction between the person and the environment takes place.

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REFRENCES and NOTES 1. Selye, H. (1936). A Syndrome Produced by Diverse Nocuous Agents. Nature. 138, 32. 2. Selye, H. (1956). The Stress of Life. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 178-194. 3. Robbins, Stephen P. (1999). Organizational Behaviour. Pearson Education Canada. 4. Lazarus, R S, (1966). Psychological Stress and the Coping Process. New York: McGraw-Hill. 5. McGrath, J.E. (1970). ―A Conceptual Formulation for Research on Stress‖. In J.E. McGrath (Ed.), Social and Psychological Factors in Stress. New York: Rinehart & Winston. 10-21. 6. Agarwal et al. (1979). Stress in Life and at Work. Sage Publications. 32, 4344, 123-162. 7. Pestonjee, D.M. (1992). Stress and Coping. The India experience. New Delhi: Sage Publication. 8. Selye, H. (1956). Op. Cit. P9. Cox, T. (1987). Stress, Coping and Problem Solving. Work & Stress. 1, 5 14. 10. Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. M. (1991). ―Stress and Infectious Disease in Humans‖. Psychological Bulletin. 109, 5-24. 11. Friedman H.S. & Rosenman. (1974). Type A Behavior and Your Heart. NY: Knopf. 12. Holroyd, K.A. & Lazarus, R.S. (1982). ―Stress, Coping and Somatic Adaption‖. In L. Goldberger & S Breznitz (Eds) Handbook on Stress: Theories and Clinical Aspects. NY: Free Press.21-35. 13. Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Stress and Emotion: a New Synthesis. London: Free Association. 14. Lazarus, R. S. (2001). ―Relational Meaning and Discrete Emotions‖. In K. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.), Appraisal processes in emotion: Theory, methods, research New York: Oxford University Press.37-67 15. Lazarus, R. S., & Cohen-Charash, Y. (2001). ―Discrete Emotions in Organizational Life‖. In R. Payne & C. Cooper (Eds.), Emotions at Work: Theory, Research and Applications for Management. Chichester: John Wiley.45-81 16. Lazarus, R. S. (2001). Op cit. P-37-67. 17. Lazarus, R. S. (1999). Op. Cit. 18. Lazarus, R. S. (2001). Op. Cit. P-37-67 19. Lewin, Kurt (1935). A Dynamic Theory of Personality. New York: McGrawHill. 20. Murray, H. (1938). Explorations in Personality. Boston, MA: Houghton Mif flin. 21. Lewin, Kurt (1935). Op. Cit.

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22. Hobfall, S.E. (1989). ―Conservation of Resources: A New Attempt at Conceptualizing Stress‖. American Psychological Association:Vol-44. 513. 23. Hobfoll, S. E. (2001). ―The Influence of Culture, Community and the NestedSelf in the Stress Process: Advancing Conservation of Resources Theory‖. Applied Psychology: An International Review. 50 , 337–421 24. Ibid. P- 337–421 25. Ibid. P- 337–421 26. Nelson, D. L., & Simmons, B. L. (2003). ―Health Psychology and Work Stress: A More Positive Approach‖. In J. C. Quick & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), Handbook of Occupational Psychology . Washington, DC: American Psychological Society. 97-119. 27. Hakanen, J. J., Perhoniemi, R., & Toppinen-Tanner, S. (2008). ―Positive Gain Spirals at Work: From Job Resources to Work Engagement, Personal Initiative and Work-Unit Innovativeness‖. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 73, 78–91. 28. Halbesleben, J. R. B. (2006). ―Sources of Social Support and Burnout: A Meta-Analytic Test of the Conservation of Resources Model‖. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (5), 1134–1145. 29. Luszczynska, A., & Cieslak, R. (2005). ―Protective, Promotive, and Buffering Effects of Perceived Social Support in Managerial Stress: The Moderating Role of Personality‖. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 18 (3), 227–244. 30. Karasek, R. A., & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy Work: Stress, Productivity and the Reconstruction of Working Life . New York: Basic Books. 205-210. 31. Ibid. P-234. 32. Shupe, E. I., & McGrath, J. E. (2000). ―Stress and the Sojourne‖r. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of Stress. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 86-100 33. Ibid. 34. Cummings, T. G., & Cooper, C. L. (2000). ―A Cybernetic Theory of Organizational Stress‖. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of Stress. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 101-121. 35. Ibid. 36. Wethington, E. (2000). ―Theories of Organizational Stress: Book Review‖. Administrative Science Quarterly. 45 ,640–642. 37. Edwards, J. R. (2000). ―Cybernetic Theory of Stress, Coping and Well-being‖. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of Stress. Oxford: Oxford University Press.122-152. 38. Warr, P. B. (2007). Work, Happiness and Unhappiness. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 39. Warr, P. B., & Clapperton, G. (2010). The Joy of Work: Jobs, Happiness, and You. London: Routledge 40. Nelson, D. L., & Simmons, B. L. (2004). ―Eustress: An Elusive Construct, an Engaging Pursuit‖. In P. L. Perrewe & D. C. Ganster (Eds.), Research in Occupational Stress and Well-being. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAL: Vol. 3. 265– 322 41. Ibid. 92

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42. Dewe, P., O‘Driscoll, M., & Cooper, C. (2010). Coping With Work Stress: A Review and Critique . Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. 43. Nelson, D. L., & Simmons, B. L. (2004). ―Eustress: An Elusive Construct, an Engaging Pursuit‖. In P. L. Perrewe & D. C. Ganster (Eds.), Research in Occupational Stress and Well-being. Amsterdam: Elsevier JAL: Vol. 3, pp. 265–322.

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Introduction 4 qualities of life Components of happiness Types of happiness Theories of happiness Happiness at workplace Factors determining happiness at workplace Importance of happiness at workplace Measuring the content of happiness at workplace

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4. HAPPINESS

Happiness in the form of pleasant moods and emotions, well-being, and positive attitudes has been attracting increasing attention throughout psychology. The interest in happiness has also extended to workplace experiences. This manuscript reviews what is known about the definition, causes, and consequences of happiness at work, drawing also on insights from the expanding positive psychology literature on happiness in general. Many discrete organizational behavior constructs arguably belong to a larger family of happiness related constructs, and share some common causes and consequences.

Happiness is a highly valued in present day society. Not only do people aim at happiness in their own life but there is also growing support for the idea that we care for the happiness of other people and that governments should aim at creating greater happiness for a greater number of citizens (Bentham 1789)1. This classic philosophy is not only more accepted these days, but also more practicable, now that scientific research provides more view on the conditions for happiness (Veenhoven 2004)2.

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4.1 INTRODUCTION Happiness is commonly understood as how much one likes the life one lives, or more formally, the degree to which one evaluates one‘s life-as-awhole positively. A central element in this definition is subjective ‗evaluation‘ or ‗liking‘ of life, also referred to as ‗satisfaction‘ with life. These words refer to a mental state but leave some ambiguity about the precise nature of that state.

When used in a broad sense, the word happiness is synonymous with 'quality of life' or 'well-being'. In this meaning it denotes that life is good, but does not specify what is good about life.

4.2 FOUR QUALITIES OF LIFE There is a difference between chances for a good life and actual outcomes of life, while there is a distinction between 'external' and 'internal' qualities. Together, these distinctions mark four qualities of life, all of which have been denoted by the word 'happiness'.

4.2.1 Liveability of the environment Often the terms 'quality-of-life' and 'wellbeing' are used in this particular meaning, especially in the writings of ecologists and sociologists. Economists sometimes use the term 'welfare' for this meaning. 95

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'Liveability' is a better word, because it refers explicitly to a characteristic of the environment. Politicians and social reformers typically stress this quality of life and sometimes refer to it as happiness. One can live in excellent circumstances but still be unhappy, because of an inability to reap the chances

4.2.2 Life-ability of the person The inner life-chances are how well we are equipped to cope with the problems of life. This aspect of the good life is also known by different names. Especially doctors and psychologists also use the terms 'quality of life' and 'wellbeing' to denote this specific meaning. There are more names however. In biology the phenomenon is referred to as 'adaptive potential'. On other occasions it is denoted by the medical term 'health', in the medium variant of the word. Sen (1992) calls this quality of life variant 'capability'. He prefers the simple term 'life-ability', which contrasts elegantly with 'livability'. This quality of life is central in the thinking of therapists and educators. Yet he also sees this as a (possible) prerequisite for happiness and not as happiness itself. Even a perfect person will be unhappy when living in Hell3.

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4.2.3 Utility of life A good life must be good for something more than itself. This presumes some higher value, such as ecological preservation or cultural development. Moral advisors emphasize this quality of life. This usefulness of life has also been denoted with the word happiness, but again do not follow that use of words. Language one can lead a useful life but still be unhappy.

4.2.4 Satisfaction with life The inner outcomes of life are the quality in the eye of the beholder. As we deal with conscious humans this quality boils down to subjective appreciation of life. This is commonly referred to by terms such as 'subjective wellbeing', 'life-satisfaction' and also ‗happiness‘.

4.3 COMPONENTS OF HAPPINESS When evaluating their lives, people can use two more or less distinct sources of information: their affects and their thoughts. We can 'observe' that we feel fine most of the time, and we can also 'judge' that life seems to meet our (conscious) demands. These appraisals do not necessarily coincide. We may feel fine generally, but nevertheless be aware that we failed to realize our aspirations. Or we may have surpassed our aspirations, but nevertheless feel miserable. The relative weight in the 97

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overall evaluation is variable in principle; it is an empirical question to what extend one component dominates the other.

4.3.1 Hedonic level of affect We experience different kinds of affects: feelings, emotions and moods and these experiences have different dimensions, such as active - inactive and pleasant - unpleasant.

That latter dimension is called ‗hedonic tone‘. When we assess how well we feel we typically estimate the pleasantness in feelings, in emotions, as well as in moods.

A person's average hedonic level of affect can be assessed over different periods of time: an hour, a week, a year as well as over a lifetime. The focus here is on 'current' hedonic level. This concept does not presume subjective awareness of that average level.

One can feel good most of the time, without being fully aware of that. Therefore this concept can be applied to beings who cannot reflect on their own life, such as animals and little children.

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4.4 TYPES OF HAPPINESS

4.4.1 Target happiness: The happiness of anticipating new projects, experiences, and challenges, working with them, and (possibly) being successful in reaching these personal goals. Target happiness is happiness through being an achiever.

4.4.2 Competitive happiness: The happiness of winning at the expense of a rival, usually through the expenditure of huge effort. Competitive happiness is happiness through being a winner.

4.4.3 Cooperative happiness: The happiness derived from helping others, either by small cooperative gestures or by doing ―good works‖ and/or helping other species. Cooperative happiness is happiness through being a helper.

4.4.4 Genetic happiness: The happiness of falling in love, pair-bonding, giving birth and successfully rearing one‘s offspring, and the happiness of caring for one‘s grand children.Genetic happiness is happiness through being a relative.

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4.4.5 Sensual happiness: The happiness of experiencing a primary biological pleasure such as a delicious meal, a sexual experience, or some other pleasure of the flesh such as bathing, oiling, and massaging. Sensual happiness is happiness through being a hedonist.

4.4.6 Cerebral happiness: The happiness derived from playing games with one‘s brain where no ulterior motive is involved—from the most trivial (card games and computer games, puzzles and brain teasers) to the most profound (artistic creativity and scientific research). Cerebral happiness is happiness through being an intellectual.

4.4.7 Rhythmic happiness: The happiness associated with intensely rhythmic activities like music, dancing, singing, aerobics, gymnastics, athletics, and even with activities such as revivalist religious celebrations, synchronized swimming, dervish whirling, voodoo possession rituals, and military marching (i.e., any activity that involves a ―beat‖). Rhythmic happiness is happiness through being a dancer.

4.4.8 Painful happiness: The pleasure derived from sado-masochistic rituals or mental masochism (seeing any form of indulgence as disgusting and wicked and living a life where such things are prohibited by oneself). Mental masochists may include health fanatics, dietslaves, teetotallers, 100

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vegans, anti-smokers, celibates, and even terrorists. Painful happiness is happiness through being a masochist.

4.4.9 Dangerous happiness: The happiness derived from deliberate, voluntary risk-taking, such as the excitement of successfully surviving a self-imposed hazard such as gambling or an extreme sport (e.g., bungeejumping, hang-gliding). Dangerous happiness is happiness through being a risk-taker.

4.4.10 Selective happiness: The happiness depending on ignoring the horrors of life all around one (i.e., the joy experienced by refusing to recognise the problems that life throws at you).

4.4.11 Tranquil happiness: The form of happiness obtained by contemplation and isolation from the cares of the world (i.e., a deliberate philosophical or religious shutting out of the rest of the world and a turning in on oneself, reaching a deep inner feeling of freedom and nonattachment). Tranquil happiness is happiness through being a meditator.

4.4.12 Devout happiness: The spiritual happiness experienced by deeply religious individuals by having total, blind faith in the tenets of a 101

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particular religion. Devout happiness is happiness through being a believer.

4.4.13 Negative happiness: The happiness felt when moments of occasional pleasure interrupt constant mental anguish or the happiness felt at the moment of relief from prolonged physical pain (when pills are taken) or the happiness felt when there is a brief interruption of constant boredom, lack of direction, insecurity, or anxiety. Negative happiness is happiness through being a sufferer.

4.4.14 Chemical happiness: The happiness obtained from a narcoticinduced state. This could include use of ―hard-drugs‖ or ―soft-drugs‖ such as tea, coffee, tobacco, and alcohol. Chemical happiness is happiness through being a drug-taker.

4.4.15 Fantasy happiness: The happiness obtained when suspending one‘s sense of reality long enough to enjoy fiction of some sort (e.g., when daydreaming, storytelling, enjoying fictional writing and theatre, watching soap operas/cartoons/films). Fantasy happiness is happiness through being a day-dreamer.

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4.4.16 Comic happiness: The pleasure of confronting one‘s fears in a completely secure context (e.g., when listening to the outrageous comments made by a comedian, when riding in a roller coaster, or enjoying a horror film safely in the cinema). Comic happiness is happiness through being a laugher.

4.4.17 Accidental happiness: The happiness derived from an accidental positive event (e.g., finding a banknote in the street, winning the lottery, or having your suitcase come up first on the carousel after a long, tiring flight). Accidental happiness is happiness through being fortunate.

4.5 THEORIES OF HAPPINESS 4.5.1 SET-POINT THEORIES OF HAPPINESS Set-point theories of happiness hold that we programmed to experience a certain degree of happiness, largely irrespective of how well we are doing. In this view happiness just happens to us.

a. Variants A classic religious version of this theory is Devine predestination, God having decided that some people will be happy and others not, just as he foresees who will enter Heaven and who will be dammed

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to Hell. Secular variants assume that happiness is geared by mental inclinations that are also beyond a person‘s control.

b. Genetic disposition This variant holds that happiness is largely determined by an innate disposition to enjoy life or not. A spokesman of this view is Lykken (1999), who claims to have shown that 80% is heritable. There is uncertainty about the nature of this disposition, some see that in the reward system of the brain and link it to positive or negative ‗affectivity‘ while others hold secondary effects responsible, such as inborn physical health4.

In the latter case, happiness is essentially a variable state, though it tends to remain at the same level because of constancy in its determinants. Below I will not discuss that variant of set-point theory.

c. Personality trait Another current view is that happiness depends very much on personality traits, that is, predispositions to react in a certain way. One of these ways is liking things or not and Personality traits such as ‗extraversion‘ and ‗neuroticism‘ are seen to determine our 104

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affective reactions to and perceptions of things that happen to us. It is generally assumed that these traits have a genetic component.

In this view personality moulds the evaluation of life. Personality can also affect happiness through its impact on the course of lifeevents, and this is central in the dynamic-equilibrium theory of Heady & Wearing (1992)5. Yet again, I do not consider that a setpoint theory, because happiness itself is essentially a variable state in this idea.

d. Cultural view A macro-level variant is this view is that the view on life is embodied in the national character. Inglehart (1990) wrote that cross-national differences in happiness ―reflect cognitive cultural norms, rather than individual grief and joy‖ 6.

4.5.2 COGNITIVE THEORIES OF HAPPINESS Cognitive theories hold that happiness is a product of human thinking and reflects discrepancies between perceptions of life-as-it- is and notions of how-life-should-be. Notions of how life should be are assumed to root in collective beliefs and to vary across cultures. This

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view on happiness is dominant in philosophy and also pervades the thinking of many social scientists.

a. Comparison The theory assumes that we have ‗standards‘ of a good life and that we constantly weigh the reality of our life against these standards. Standards are presumed to be variable rather than fixed and to follow perceptions of possibilities. In other words: we would tend to judge life by what we think it can realistically be. Different theories stress different standards. In the variant of life-time comparison the focus is on whether we are doing better or worse than before. In that view a happy youth will not add to happiness in adulthood. The social comparison variant stresses how well we are doing relative to other people, and in particular people like us. Several of these theories are combined in Michalos’(1985) ‗Multiple Discrepancies Theory‘ of happiness, which assumes that we not only compare with what we want and with what others have, but also with what we need and with what we deem fair.7

b. Social construction The idea that we compare to standards begs the question of where these standards come from. This is typically seen as an outcome of 106

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socialization, involving the adoption of collective notions of the good life, sometimes with minor modifications. These collective notions of the good life are seen as ‗social constructions‘ that draw heavily on the wider culture and shared history. In this line some sociologists argue that happiness as such is also a social construction. In that view, happiness is a culturally variable concept, comparable to the notion of ‗beauty‘.

c. Reflected appraisal A sociological variant holds that we not only compare life our self with our own standards, but that we also appraise our life through the eyes of others, in other words, that in assessing how happy we are we estimate how happy other people think we are. If so, this enhances the salience of shared standards of the good life. Most cognitive theories imply also that there is little chance of creating greater happiness for a greater number, in particular the theories that assume that standards adjust to reality. Some variants of this theory predict that happiness will vary around the neutral level (e.g. Unger 1970)8, while some variants even predict that most people will be unhappy, e.g. theories that stress the social salience of success in advertisements and the news.

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4.5.3 AFFECTIVE THEORIES OF HAPPINESS Affect theory hold that happiness is a reflection of how well we feel generally. In this view we do not ‗calculate‘ happiness, but rather ‗infer‘ it, the typical heuristic being ―I feel good most of the time, hence I must be happy‖ (Schwartz & Strack 1991) 9.

a. Frequency of affect It would seem that the overall evaluation of life is geared by the most salient affective experiences and that these are typically intense affects. This view is common in fiction and is more or less implied in lifereviews. Yet research using the Experience Sampling Method shows that it is rather the relative frequency of positive to negative affect that matters (Diener et. al 1991) 10.

b. Mood as informant How do we assess that relative frequency? The cognitive view on affect procession suggests that we compute an affect balance in some way, using estimates of frequency and duration. A competing view is that this occurs automatically and that the balance reflects in mood. In this view mood is an affective meta-signal that, contrary to feelings and emotions, is not linked to specific objects. Emotions denote an affective reaction to something and prepare the organism to a response, while negative mood 108

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signals that there may be something wrong and urge to find out what that is.

c. Gratification of needs Why do we feel good or bad at all? Probably because that informs us in how well we are doing. Affects are an integral part of our adaptive repertoire and seem to be linked to the gratification of human needs. ‗Needs‘ are vital requirements for survival, such as eating, bonding and exercise. Nature seems to have safeguarded the gratification of these needs with affective signals such as hunger, love and zest. In this view positive mood signals that all needs are sufficiently met at the moment. ‗Needs‘ in this theory should not be equated with ‗wants‘ in the above discussion of cognitive theories. Needs are inborn and universal while ‗wants‘ are acquired and can de variable across cultures. Wants can concur more or less with needs.

d. Motivation to act In this view negative and positive mood function as red and green lights on the human machine, indicating either that there is something wrong or that all systems are functioning properly. If so, this is likely to have behavioural consequences, negative mood urging to cautions and positive

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mood encouraging going on. This is what Fredrickson’s (2003) ‗broaden and built‘ theory is about11.

4.6 HAPPINESS AT WORKPLACE Happiness at Work is a mindset that enables action to maximize performance and achieve potential. Happiness at Work is not the fleeting pleasure of smiles and positive effect, nor the ingrained traits of optimism and positivity. It is about having the energy, resilience, and commitment to meet the ever-greater challenges of the workplace in a positive and sustainable manner.

Warr (Warr & Clapperton, 2010) identifies 12 sources of work happiness, but recognizes that there is no correct number of work sources, as these will differ across and within jobs, and will depend also on individual differences. Discussing these work sources, Warr (1997) suggests that the best way to think about these different sources is to liken them to vitamins where, in much the same way as vitamins, they are good for the person but only up to a certain level12. Warr ( 2007 ) outlined how, like vitamins, moderate levels of these work sources produce happiness, but beyond a certain level there is a ―tipping point‖ 13 (Warr & Clapperton, 2010 ) where the demands of some of these work sources 110

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reduce happiness and well-being and where, for other work sources, providing more does not produce more happiness as you have already reached as much as you want. The absence of these work sources does, of course, produce unhappiness. 14 The role of individual differences also plays a part in the work–happiness equation. While Warr ( 2007 ) and Warr and Clapperton ( 2010 ) point out the way different personality traits influence happiness, and how happiness also depends on the different sorts of comparisons individuals make about themselves in relation to others15,16. They also raise the issue of whether individuals have a consistency in their levels of happiness—―a baseline‖ that they keep coming back to ( Warr & Clapperton , p. 10) 17. The ―overall message‖ that flows from this approach, however, is that happiness–unhappiness comes not just from the different work sources, but is also derived from within and that ―possible improvements must be sought for both directions‖ (Warr & Clapperton, 2010 , p. 177) 18.

4.7 FACTORS DETERMINING HAPPINESS AT WORKPLACE Prof. Timothy Sharp surveyed the people and asked them, quite simply, what they considered to be the top three contributors to happiness at work. Interestingly, their responses were remarkably consistent. Although

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the about fifty respondents used slightly different words, the core issues were similar.

4.7.1 Leadership and Values Employees at all levels and across a range of different industries agreed on leadership as important for happiness at work. Employees noted how important it was for the organization as a whole to have clear values and for all who work within the organization to have respect for these values19. Cameron, Dutton, and Quinn‘s wonderful Positive Organizational Scholarship, leadership, therefore, includes clarity of purpose, structure, consistency of behavior, and even better and more positive induction programs make them happy at workplace. 20

4.7.2 Effective, Clear Communication Following this, but separate enough to warrant its own heading was the theme

of

effective

and

clear

communication,

especially from

management. Although this was indubitably considered an important variable by many if not most of those who responded to the survey, it was also very clear that the theme of communication extended far beyond just the basics of assertiveness.

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When people talked about communication they also referred to a desire to have one‘s opinions listened to and taken seriously. Respondents referred to the importance of ―listening to staff, really hearing what they say, even if it is not what the manager wants to hear.‖ This point seemed to me to go towards issues of trust and respect.

4.7.3 Being Thanked and Appreciated Additionally, employees want to not just be valued as important members of the team and of the organization but, also to be told, frequently and appropriately, that they‘re valued. A dominant theme was ―being thanked and appreciated.‖ Many respondents referred to this in one way or other with specific comments including a desire to more often see or hear about managers and colleagues openly congratulating and/or ―sending emails around about wins or efforts by people‖ as well as the potential benefits that could be associated with ―more frequently acknowledging the little achievements that everyone does each day.‖

4.7.4 Strengths The fourth theme to emerge from the survey indirectly and sometimes very directly revealed the number of people who are increasingly becoming aware of the importance of and benefits associated with

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identifying and more fully utilizing the strengths of each and every employee.

Responses referred to the desire to have one‘s ―skills used more‖ and the desire to receive more ―adequate training leading to the prospect of advancement within the organization.‖ This is entirely consistent with one of the most exciting areas of positive psychology in which problems and deficits are not ignored but, and this is an important but, strengths, qualities, and attributes receive a far greater proportion of our attention. 21 As has been suggested by Marcus Buckingham and others, there‘s little doubt that the return on investments is far greater when individuals and organizations focus more on utilizing strengths, as opposed to just fixing weaknesses22.

4.7.5Fun And finally, there was general agreement that most workplaces would benefit from encouraging, fostering, and reinforcing a ―more fun and light atmosphere,‖ one in which there was more ―regular use of humour.‖ Every respondent, in one way or other, seemed to recognize the relationship between happiness at work and productivity: this wasn‘t a group of people who just wanted to ―muck around.‖ Those who responded seemed very ambitious and hard working, but they also 114

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seemed to inherently understand that when employees are having fun, they‘re also more energized; when people are happy and enjoying themselves (at least some or most of the time) then they‘re more productive and nicer to be around23.

4.8 IMPORTANCE OF HAPPINESS AT WORKPLACE Happiness at Work helps individuals build the energy, resilience, and awareness they need to take ownership for their responsibilities, jobs, and careers. Building Happiness at Work involves identifying what resources you have and what resources you need, as well as how to obtain them. Having Happiness at Work means that you feel you have the energy and drive to overcome challenges. It means you feel good about where you are and have a clear picture of where you want to go. And you have the resilience and commitment to get there.

4.9 MEASURING THE CONTENT OF HAPPINESS AT WORK The content of happiness constructs and measures varies considerably, though all feature a common core of pleasantness. As mentioned earlier, many work-related happiness constructs focus largely on the hedonic experiences of pleasure and liking, and/or positive beliefs about an object (e.g., job satisfaction, affective commitment, the experience of positive emotions while working). Other constructs include both hedonic and 115

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eudaimonic content, the latter involving learning/development, growth, autonomy, and self-actualization. Further, happiness constructs and measures vary as to whether they focus mainly on ―cold cognitions‖ such as beliefs and evaluative judgments or on ―hot‖ affective phenomena such as moods and emotions. Constructs also vary as to their target. Moods are relatively free floating affective states that may not have a known cause or target, emotions have specific targets, and attitudes by definition are judgments about attitude objects. When happiness constructs have an object, it can be a very broad object (e.g. the organization or 11 occupation), slightly less broad (the job as a whole), somewhat more specific (facets of the job such as co-workers, supervisors, or the work itself), or very specific (a particular work event). The paragraphs that follow explore traditional and newer workplace variables that belong to the family of happiness constructs. Happiness at work includes but is far more than job satisfaction. A comprehensive measure of individual level happiness might include work engagement, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Aspects of happiness have been (and should be) conceptualized and measured at multiple levels, including transient experiences, stable person level attitudes, and collective attitudes, and with respect to multiple foci, such as discrete events, the job, and the organization. At all levels, there is evidence that happiness has important consequences for both individuals and organizations. 116

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REFRENCES AND NOTES 1. Bentham, J. (1789). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. London, Payne. 2. Veenhoven, R. (2004). Happiness as an Aim in Public Policy. Ney York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, ISBN 0471459062. 3. Sen, A. (1992). ―Capability and Wellbeing. in: Nussbaum‖. M. & Sen, A. (Eds.). The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon. 4. Lykken, D. (1999). Happiness: What Studies on Twins Show us About Nature, Nurture, and the Happiness Set-Point. New York: Golden Books. 5. Headey, B., & Wearing, A. (1992). Understanding Happiness: A Theory of Subjective Well-being. Melbourne, Australia: Longman Cheshire. 6. Inglehart, R.F. (1990). Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 7. Michalos, A.C. (1985). Multiple Dimensions Theory. Social Indicator Research. 8. Unger, H.E. (1970). ―The Feeling of Happiness‖. Psychology, 27-33. 9. Schwarz, Norbert, and Fritz Strack. (1991). "Evaluating One's Life: A Judgment Model of Subjective Well-Being." In Subjective Well-Being: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, ed. Fritz Strack, Michael Argyle, and Norbert Schwarz. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.27-47. 10. Diener, E., Sandvik, E., & Pavot, W. (1991). ―Happiness is the Frequency, Not The Intensity, of Positive Versus Negative Affect‖. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwartz (Eds.), Subjective Well-being: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.119-139. 11. Fedrickson, B.L. (2003). The Values of Positive Emotions. American Scientist 91,330-335. 12. Warr, P. (1997). ―Correlates and Perceived Outcomes of 4 Types of Employee Development Activity‖. Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (6), 845. 13. Warr, P.B. (2007). Work, Happiness, and Unhappiness. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. 14. Warr, P. B., & Clapperton, G. (2010). The Joy of Work? Jobs, Happiness, and You. New York: Routledge. 15. Warr, P.B. (2007). Op. Cit. . 16. Warr, P. B., & Clapperton, G. (2010). Op. Cit. 17. Ibid. 18. Ibid. 19. Sharp, T. (1997). 100 Ways to Happiness. Penguin: U.K. 20. Cameron, K. S., Dutton, J. E., and Quinn, R. E., editors (2003b). Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA. 21. Sharp, T. (1997). Op. Cit. 22. Buckingham, M. (2009). Find Your Strongest Life. Thomas Nelson Publishers. 23.Sharp, T. (1997). Op. Cit. 117

Introduction Determinants of personality Theories of personality, Types of personality Personality traits 16 factors of personality Role of personality at workplace Working personality of police personnel

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5. PERSONALITY

Personality is a concept that we use continuously in our in our day-to-day routine, when dealing with people. We talk about people as having a good personality or a bad personality or arrogant personality or aggressive personality. Sometimes we refer to disagreements among people as being due to personality conflicts. Personality can be reflected in a person‘s temperament and is a key factor influencing individual behaviour in organization.

5.1 INTRODUCTION The origin or the etymological derivative of personality comes from the word ―persona‖, theatrical masks worn by Romans in Greek and Latin drama. Personality also comes from the two Latin words ―per‖ and ―sonare‖, which literally means ―to sound through‖. This concept extends to Jung‘s component of ―persona‖, meaning ―public image‖, which refers to the role expected by social or cultural convention. According to Fromm, 1974; ―Personality is the totality of individual psychic qualities, which includes temperament, one‘s mode of reaction and character, and two objects of one‘s reaction.‖1

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Personality may be biologically defined as the governing organ or super ordinate institution of the body in as much as it is located in the brain. ―No brain, no personality‖ (Murray, 1951). 2 Personality is a person‘s unique pattern of traits. (Guilford, 1959).3 Personality is the record of a person‘s experiences and behaviour together with the psychological systems, which contribute casual determination to the existing and functioning record. Some casual determination is found within the record itself. (Cartwright, 1979).4 According to the psycho-analytic theory propounded by Sigmund Freud, Personality is made of three major systems-‗Id‘, ‗Ego‘ and ‗super-ego‘ and the human behaviour is the product of interaction among these systems. 5

Personality has been defined by Shaffer as Personality consists of observable behaviour, and it is also individual and intrinsic. It is defined as an individual‘s typical or consistent adjustment to his behaviour. 6

Allport (1937), the humanistic trait and self theorist, discusses the development of personality as a three-pronged task for the individual:  Self-objectification: ―that peculiar detachment of the mature person when he surveys his own pretensions in relation to his abilities, his

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comparison with the equipment of others, and his opinion of himself in relation to the opinion others hold of him.‖  Extension of self: self--―going beyond self to invest energies in causes and goal-seeking that transcend his or her individual life‖;  Unifying philosophies of life: ―mature persons live their lives by some dominant guiding principles by which they place themselves in the scheme of things.‖ 7 Allport further said that personality can best be understood as:  a mixture of major and minor ―traits‖ by which a single life is known,  a personality ―trait‖ is a biological, psychological and social mixture that disposes a person toward specific kinds of action under specific circumstances. 8

5.2 DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY Every person has a different personality and there are a lot of factors which contribute to that personality. We call them the ‗determinants of personality‘ or the ‗factors of personality‘.

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These determinants and factors of personality can belong to very different categories. Earlier, the major debate was primarily between the heredity and environmental factors. Many psychologists believe that the environment, in which an individual lives in, forms his personality. On the other hand, some psychologists used to debate that personality is predetermined at the time of birth – which means that it is hereditary. Actually, it appears that both the environmental and heredity factors contribute as the important determinants and factors of personality.

There are various determinants of personality and these have been categorized indifferent ways.

5.2.1. Environmental Factors of Personality: The environment that an individual lives in has a major impact on his personality. The culture and environment establish attitudes, values, norms and perceptions in an individual. Based on the cultures and traditions, different senses of right and wrong are formed in individuals. These environmental factors also include the neighbourhood a person lives in, his school, college, university and workplace. Moreover, it also counts the social circle the individual has. Friends, parents, colleagues, 121

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co-workers and bosses, everybody plays a role as the determinants of personality. i)

Socialisation Process: The contribution of family and social group in combination with the culture is knows as socialisation. In the words of Mussen ― Socialisation is the process by which an individual infant acquires, from the enormously wide range of behavioural potentials that are open to him at birth, those behaviour patterns that are customary and accepted according to the standards of his family and social group. It initially starts with the contact with mother and later on the other members of the family and the social group plays influential role in shaping an individual‘ personality. 9

ii)

Identification Process: Identification process occurs when a person tries to identify himself with some person whom he feels ideal in the family. Generally a child in the family tries to behave like his father or mother. The identification process can be

examined

from

three

different

perspectives.

First,

identification can be viewed as the similarity of behaviour (including feelings and attitudes) between child and model. Second, identification can be looked as the child‘s motives or desires to be like the model. Third, it can be viewed as the

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process through which the child actually takes on the attributes of the model.

5.2. 2. Biological Factors of Personality: i)

Heredity Factors of Personality: The heredity factors play a very important role as the major determinants and factors of personality. Heredity factors are the ones that are determined at the time of conception. These factors not only affect the physical features of a person, but the intelligence level, attentiveness, gender, temperament, various inherited diseases and energy level, all get affected by them. The example of how heredity factors determine such a huge and significant part of an individual‘s personality can easily be observed in children. Many children behave exactly how their parents do. Similarly, twin siblings also have a lot of things in common.

ii)

Physical Features: Just as environmental factors, there are many physical factors as well that determine your personality. These physical factors include the overall physical structure of a person: his height, weight, colour, sex, beauty and body language, etc. An individual‘s personality can change over time.

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Physical factors are one of the major reasons of that. Most of the physical structures change from time to time, and so does the personality. With exercises, cosmetics and surgeries etc. many physical features are changed, and therefore, the personality of the individual also evolves. iii)

Brain: Another biological factor that influences personality is the role of brain of an individual. Though some promising inroads are made by researchers, the psychologists are unable to prove empirically the contribution of human brain in influencing personality. Preliminary results from the electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) research gives indication that better understanding of human personality and behaviour might come from the study of the brain.

5.2.3. Situational Factors of Personality: Although these factors do not literally create and shape up an individual‘s personality, situational factors do alter a person‘s behaviour and response from time to time. The situational factors can be commonly observed when a person behaves contrastingly and exhibits different traits and characteristics. For example, a person‘s behaviour will be totally different

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when he is in his office, in front of his boss, when compared to his hangout with old friends in a bar. In this way, situational factors impact a personality in a significant way. They often bring out the traits of a person that are not commonly seen.

5.2.4 Cultural Factors Culture is traditionally considered as the major determinants of an individual‘s personality. The culture largely determinants what a person is and what a person will learn. The culture within a person is brought up, is very important determinant of behaviour of a person. Culture is complex of these belief, values, and techniques for dealing with the environment which are shared among contemporaries and transmitted by one generation to the next. Culture required both conformity and acceptance from its members. There are several ways of ensuring that members comply with the dictates of the culture. The personality of an individual to a marked extended determined by the culture in which he is brought up. According to Mussen ―each culture expects, and trains, its members to behave in the ways that are acceptable to the group. In spite of the importance of the culture of the culture on personality, researchers were unable to establish linear relationship between these two concepts ―personality‖ and ―culture‖. 10

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5.3 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY 5.3.1 Biological Theories Biological approaches suggest that genetics are responsible for personality. Research on heritability suggests that there is a link between genetics and personality traits. One of the best known biological theorists was Hans Eysenck, who linked aspects of personality to biological processes. Eysenck argued that introverts had high cortical arousal, leading them to avoid stimulation. On the other hand, Eysenck believed extroverts had low cortical arousal, causing them to seek out stimulating experiences. 11

5.3.2 Behavioural Theories

Behavioural theories suggest that personality is a result of interaction between the individual and the environment. Behavioural theorists study observable and measurable behaviours, rejecting theories that take internal thoughts and feelings into account. Behavioural theorists include B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson.

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5.3.3 Psychodynamic Theories

Psychodynamic theories of personality are heavily influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud and emphasize the influence of the unconscious mind and childhood experiences on personality. Psychodynamic theories include

Sigmund

Freud's psychosexual

stage

theory and

Erik

Erikson's stages of psychosocial development.

Freud believed the three components of personality were the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is responsible for all needs and urges, while the superego for ideals and moral. The ego moderates between the demands of the id, the superego, and reality. 12

Erikson believed that personality progressed through a series of stages, with certain conflicts arising at each stage. Success in any stage depended upon successfully overcoming these conflicts. 13

5.3.4 Humanist Theories

Humanist theories emphasize the importance of free will and individual experience in the development of personality. Humanist theorists emphasized the concept of self-actualization, which is an innate need for

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personal growth that motivates behaviour. Humanist theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.

5.3.5 Trait Theories

The trait theory approach is one of the largest areas within personality psychology. According to this theory, personality is made up of a number of broad traits. A trait is basically a relatively stable characteristic that causes an individual to behave in certain ways. Some of the best known trait theories include Eysenck's three-dimension theory and the five factor theory of personality.

5.4 TYPES OF PERSONALITY Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of individuals. Personality types are sometimes distinguished from personality traits, with the latter embodying a smaller grouping of behavioural tendencies. Researchers have divided personality types differently that we will consider 4 types.

5.4.1 Personality type A Personality type A People that have the fallowing evident features can be put in the group of this kind of personality type: They are quick at studies

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and speak clearly and very fast and provide short and strong answers to the questions, the gap between asking question and receiving answers from them is very short and they often have strict and twisted face. They are not satisfied about their job and try to get higher position; they are ambitious and try a lot to win in any situation they like to dominate the opponent. They are often seen with clenched fists and have hostile face.

5.4.2 Personality type B The fallowing features are observed in these people: They are seen with favourable and mild smile. They seldom interfere and talk while others are talking and don't interrupts others' speech. The quality of their speech is uniform. Before answering question they pause and think. Their face seems calm and friendly. This group tries to dominate the opponent. Competence is not important for them and they are not usually ambitious from the work that they dominate on, merit is not important for them and they are not usually ambitious. They are satisfied about work that has been assigned to them and they seldom sigh. Their method of conversation is calm and with pausing.

5.4.3 Personality Type C These people are known with the fallowing evident features: Most people in this group love discovering new things and know the performance and 129

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application of things around them. They are interested in details. They seem calm and do not like to dominate the opponent. They don't get used to impose their believes to anyone. They are introvert and like their physical exercise and seem pragmatist. People in this group have often mental stress and depression. Working with other people is difficult for them and they like to work alone. They are independent and intelligence. People in this group are capable of getting career.

5.4.4 Personality type D People in this group are affected by mental depression more than other groups. They are stressed and get angry more than others. They don't feel comfortable with others. They are social and like to communicate with others but they fear that their behaviour will not be accepted by others. They have less self-esteem and this fear threats them permanently that they will not be accepted by others. Some scientists believe that all personal features aren't genetic and some factors affect them and may affect a person who is situated at an especial position..

5.5 PERSONALITY TRAITS There are many ways to measure personality, but psychologists have mostly given up on trying dividing humanity neatly into types. Instead,

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they focus on personality traits. The most widely accepted of these traits are the Big Five. The Big Five are the ingredients that make up each individual's personality. A person might have a dash of openness, a lot of conscientiousness, an average amount of extraversion, plenty of agreeableness and almost no neuroticism at all. Or someone could be disagreeable, neurotic, introverted, conscientious and hardly open at all. Here's what each trait entails: 5.5.1 Openness Openness is shorthand for "openness to experience." People who are high in openness enjoy adventure. They're curious and appreciate art, imagination and new things. The motto of the open individual might be "Variety is the spice of life." People low in openness are just the opposite: They prefer to stick to their habits, avoid new experiences and probably aren't the most adventurous eaters. 5.5.2 Conscientiousness People who are conscientious are organized and have a strong sense of duty. They're dependable, disciplined and achievement-focused. You won't find conscientious types jetting off on round-the-world journeys with only a backpack; they're planners. 131

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People low in conscientiousness are more spontaneous and freewheeling. They may tend toward carelessness. 5.5.3 Extraversion Extraversion versus Introversion is possibly the most recognizable personality trait of the Big Five. The more of an extravert someone is, the more of a social butterfly they are. Extraverts are chatty, sociable and draw energy from crowds. They tend to be assertive and cheerful in their social interactions. Introverts, on the other hand, need plenty of alone time, perhaps because their brains process social interaction different. Introversion is often confused with shyness, but the two aren't the same. Shyness implies a fear of social interactions or an inability to function socially. Introverts can be perfectly charming at parties — they just prefer solo or smallgroup activities.

5.5.4 Agreeableness Agreeableness measures the extent of a person's warmth and kindness. The more agreeable someone is, the more likely they are to be trusting, helpful and compassionate. Disagreeable people are cold and suspicious of others, and they're less likely to cooperate. 132

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5.5.5 Neuroticism Neuroticism is a fundamental personality trait in the study of psychology characterized by anxiety, moodiness, worry, envy, and jealousy. Individuals who score high on neuroticism are more likely than the average to experience such feelings as anxiety, anger, envy, guilt and depressed mood. They respond more poorly to stressors are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. They are often self conscious, shy, and they may have trouble controlling urges and delaying gratification.

5.6

16 FACTORS OF PERSONALITY

Raymond B. Cattell has developed a different approach to the description and analysis of personality. He relies on data collected from three sources: a person's life record, self-ratings, and objective tests.14 Drawing from people's life records and self-ratings, Cattell identified major personality factors both within individuals and across people in general.

According to Cattell, there is a continuum of personality traits. In other words, each person contains all of these 16 traits to a certain degree, but they might be high in some traits and low in others.15 The following 133

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personality trait list describes some of the descriptive terms used for each of the 16 personality dimensions described by Cattell. 1. Warmth: reserved versus warm-hearted 2. Reasoning: Concrete versus abstract 3. Emotional Stability: Calm versus high strung 4. Dominance: Forceful versus submissive 5. Liveliness: Spontaneous versus restrained 6. Rule-Consciousness: Nonconforming versus dutiful 7. Social Boldness: Shy versus venturesome 8. Sensitive: Tough versus sensitive 9. Vigilance: Trusting versus suspicious 10. Abstractedness: Imaginative versus practical 11. Privateness: Genuine versus discreet 12. Apprehension: Worried versus confident 13. Openness to Change: Flexible versus attached to the familiar 14.Self-Reliance: Group-oriented versus solitary 15.Perfectionism: Flexible versus organized

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16.Tension: Placid versus tense Cattell distinguishes between surface traits, which are observable patterns of behavior, and source traits, which he viewed as underlying, internal traits responsible for our overt behavior. He viewed the source traits as more important. Source traits can be identified only by means of computer analysis of all the collected data. Cattell also distinguishes between general traits -- those possessed by all -- and specific traits -those typical of only one person.

5.7 ROLE OF PERSONALITY AT WORKPLACE Workplaces are dictated not only by policies but also the personalities of employees. Trying to stifle personality can result in disgruntled and frustrated employees. When managers understand the role of personality in the workplace, they can use it to grow the company and move it forward.

5.7.1 Creativity A person's ability to think creatively stems from her personality. Brainstorming sessions and one-on-one idea exchanges with employees can help spark creativity. When employees are allowed to apply their creativity to solving company issues, the company benefits from a wider 135

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variety of ideas and options. Managers must maintain control over creativity, however, to prevent aggressive personalities from dominating. Policies regarding the submission of ideas can help keep aggressive personalities in check while still benefiting from their creativity.

5.7.2 Retention Appealing to an employee's individual personality can help increase job satisfaction and reduce employee turnover. For example, rather than assume that all employees welcome challenges, you should talk with them to gauge their feelings on job duties. Some employees might prefer routine jobs with few changes or surprises, while others might look forward to challenges. By gauging employee personalities, you can better match employees with job duties.

5.7.3 Teamwork Some people are not inclined to work well in a team. They are strongly independent, or they prefer to follow their own set of instructions. These personality traits are important to discover in the interview process through written tests and personal discussions. Hiring someone who does not value teamwork can significantly hinder a work team's progress.

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5.7.4 Production Some people are just not motivated and cannot be motivated. When their personal productivity drops and they are consistently behind on deadlines, they drag down their department and the company as a whole. This also causes resentment and frustration among staffers who are forced to work harder to make up for the drop in productivity. They may even slow down their own productivity if the uninspired employee is kept on at the company. A general drop in morale will occur.

5.8 WORKING PERSONALITY OF POLICE PERSONNEL The characteristics usually associated with police personalities in present times are machismo, bravery, authoritarianism, cynicism and aggression. Additional characteristics have been associated with police personalities as well: suspicious, solidarity, conservative, alienated and thoroughly bigoted (Balch, 1977, Skolnick, 1977)16, 17.

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REFRENCES & NOTES 1. Fromm E, (1973). The Crornp Hvrnan Dcsrrucrhmess. Holt. Rinchan and Winston. New York. 2. Murray, H.A. (1973). ―Toward a Classification of Interactions‖. In T. Parsons & E.A. Shils (Eds). Toward a General Theory of Action. Harvard University Press. 434-464. 3. Guilford, J. P. (1959). Personality. New York: McGraw-Hill. 4. Cartwright, D.S. (1979). Theories and Models of Personality. W.C: Brown Company. 5.

Freud, S. (1933). New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. Penguin Freud Library.105–6

6. Shaffer, F. (1999). The Psychology of Adjustment. Boston: Houghton Miffin Company. 7.

Allport, G. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Henry Holt.

8. Ibid. 9. Mussen, P.H. Conger,J.J.; & Kagan, J. (1974). Child development and Personality. New York : Harper & Row. 10. Ibid. 11. Eysenck, H.J. (1967). The Biological Basis of Personality. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher. 12. Freud, S. (1955). ―The Metapsychology of Instincts, Repression and Unconscious, in collected papers of Sigmund Freud‖ (ed,) Drnest Jones, New York: American Library. 13. Erikson, E. H. (1980). Identity and the lift cycle. New York: Norton. 14. Cattell, R.B. (1945). ―The description of Personality. III: Principles and Findings in a factor analysis‖. American Journal of Psychology. 58, 69-90. 15. Cattell, R.B. (1946). Description and measurement of Personality. Yonkers-onHudson. New York: World Book. 16. Balch, R., (1977). ―The police personality: Fact or fiction‖. In D.B. Kennedy (Ed.). The dysfunctional alliance: Emotion and Reason in Justice Administration. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Company. 10-25.

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17. Skolnick, J., (1977). ―A Sketch of the Policeman‘s Working Personality.‖ In D.B.Kennedy (Ed.). The Dysfunctional Alliance: Emotion and Reason in Justice Administration. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Company.

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Introduction, Basic Components of Emotional Intelligence History of Emotional Intelligence Determinants of Emotional Intelligence Importance of Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence at workplace Emotional Intelligence & police personnel

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6. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Over the last decade Emotional Intelligence (EI) has drawn important interest from academics and HR practitioners throughout the world. The development of emotional intelligence skills is vital because it is an area that is generally ignored when skills development programs are designed. And yet research shows that emotions, properly managed, can drive trust, loyalty, and commitment. Many of the greatest productivity gains, innovations,

and

accomplishments

of

individuals,

teams,

and

organisations have occurred within such a framework (Cooper & Sawaf, 1997).1

6.1 INTRODUCTION Emotional intelligence is a social intelligence that enables people to recognise their own, and other peoples' emotions. Moreover, emotional intelligence enables people to differentiate those emotions, and to make appropriate choices for thinking and action (Cooper and Sawaf, 19972; Mayer and Salovey, 19973). It is an intelligence that may be learned, developed and improved (Perkins, 19944; Sternberg, 19965). According to Salovey and Mayer (1990)6, emotional intelligence includes an "ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to categorize among them and to use this information to guide

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one's thinking and actions". A related definition adds the "ability to adaptively recognize emotion, express emotion, regulate emotion and harness emotions" (Schutte et al., 1998)7. Personal or emotional intelligence has been found to vary by age or developmental level and gender (Gardner, 1999) 8.

Emotional intelligence may be defined as the ability to use your awareness and sensitivity to discern the feelings underlying interpersonal communication, and to resist the temptation to respond impulsively and thoughtlessly, but instead to act from receptivity, authenticity and candour (Ryback, 1998)9. At its best, emotional intelligence is about influence without manipulation or ill-treatment of authority. It is about perceiving, learning, relating, innovating, prioritising and acting in ways that take into account and legitimise emotions, rather than relying on logic or intellect or technical analysis alone (Ryback, 1998) 10.

Emotional Intelligence is now being considered to be essential in organisational factors such as: organisational change (Ferres & Connell, 2004; Singh, 2003)11,

12

; leadership (Ashkanasy, 2002; Dearborn,

2002; Gardner & Stough, 2002; Weymes, 2002)13, 14, 15, 16 ; management performance (Slaski & Cartwright, 2002)17; perceiving occupational

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stress (Nicklaou & Tsaousis, 2002; Oginska-Bulik, 2005)18, 19; and life satisfaction (Palmer, Donaldson & Stough, 2002)

20

. To meet

organisational ends (Lord, Klimiski, & Kanfer 2002) 21, it is not unusual to use emotions and emotion related thoughts and behaviour as the ingredients in an institutionalised recipe of emotional culture.

6.2 BASIC COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EI) EI is different from but cordial to academic intelligence, the purely cognitive capacity measured by IQ. Unlike IQ that does not significantly change over one’s life time, emotional intelligence can be taught and learned. It requires vow to develop one’s competencies and skills through repeated application, practice, and feedback. EI has basic components such as:

6.2.1 Self-awareness: Self-awareness is the heart of emotional intelligence. It is the foundation on which most of the other elements of emotional intelligence are built, the necessary first step toward exploring and coming to understand oneself, and toward change. It is the ability to recognize and understand one’s moods, emotions, and drives as well as their impact on others. Emotional self-awareness is also about knowing

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what motivates ones, what brings fulfilment, and what lifts one’s heart and fills one with energy and aliveness.

6.2.2 Self-regulation: Self-regulation or desire control is-the ability to regulate one’s emotions and behaviour so that one act appropriately in various situations. It involves resisting or delaying an impulse, drive, and temptation to act, responding versus reacting.

6.2.3 Interpersonal skills : Interpersonal effectiveness involves being empathetic (i.e., being aware of, understanding, and appreciating the feelings of others); being a constructive, cooperative, and contributing member of one’s social group; and, establishing and maintaining mutually gratifying relationships.

6.2.4 Adaptability: Adaptability is the capacity to cope with environmental demands by effectively and realistically sizing up and flexibly dealing with problematic situations. It is the ability to adjust emotions, thoughts, and behaviour to changing situations and conditions.

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6.2.5 Stress Tolerance: Stress tolerance is the ability to withstand adverse events, stressful situations, and strong emotions without falling apart but by actively coping with stress.

6.2.6 General Mood and Motivation: Two factors that ease emotionally intelligent behaviour are optimism and happiness. Optimism is the ability to look at the brighter side of life and to maintain a positive attitude even in the face of adversity. Happiness is the ability to feel satisfied with one’s life, to enjoy oneself and others, and to have fun and express a positive mood.

6.3 THE HISTORY OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE For decades, researchers have studied the reasons why a high IQ does not necessarily guarantee success in the classroom or the boardroom. By the 1980s, psychologists and biologists, among others, were focusing on the important role other skill sets — needed to process emotional information — played in promoting worldly success, leadership, personal fulfilment and happy relationships.

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In 1990, psychologists John Mayer (now at the University of New Hampshire) and Peter Salovey of Yale theorized that a unitary intelligence underlay those other skill sets. They coined the term, emotional intelligence, which they broke down into four “branches”: Identifying emotions on a nonverbal level Using emotions to guide cognitive thinking Understanding the information emotions convey and the actions emotions generate Regulating one’s own emotions, for personal benefit and for the common good22 As a science reporter for the New York Times, Goleman was exposed to Mayer’s and Salovey’s work and took the concept of emotional intelligence a step further. In his eponymous book from 1995, he argued that existing definitions of intelligence needed to be reworked. IQ was still important, but intellect alone was no guarantee of adeptness in identifying one’s own emotions or the emotional expressions of others. 23 It took a special kind of intelligence, Goleman said, to process emotional information and utilize it effectively — whether to facilitate good personal decisions, to resolve conflicts or to motivate oneself and others. 24

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6.4 DETERMINANTS OF EI Emotional intelligence is a concept in psychology that refers a person's capacity to express and interpret emotions. It is a relatively new idea that gained popularity in the 1990s, when researchers began to realize that standard intelligence wasn't the only type of intelligence that people have. This characteristic has been shown to predict success in relationships and job performance. There following are some of the main components of emotional intelligence psychology.

6.4.1 Perceiving Emotions A person's perception of emotions is one of the factors contributing to emotional intelligence. You can probably think of someone in your life who is extremely adept at understanding what you are feeling, even when you don't say a thing. Some people are born with a seemingly innate ability to read others' emotions. On the other hand, you have probably encountered people who seem oblivious to the emotions of those around them. They might have difficulty perceiving a person's reaction or get confused upon trying to determine what emotion someone is displaying. This can be a sign of low emotional intelligence.

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6.4.2 Emotional Reasoning This quality refers to someone's ability to use emotions to react. For instance, people's emotions often control what they pay attention to or what they choose to focus on in a given situation. The mind prioritizes those things, demanding an emotional reaction. Most people need to learn how to effectively identify and use emotions to be successful. Emotional reasoning is the process of thinking about and prioritizing those things that are emotionally significant.

6.4.3 Emotional Comprehension The concept of emotional comprehension refers to how well a person is able to understand his or her own and others' emotions. For instance, if you are like most people, when someone tells you that he or she feels angry with you, you may search for reasons as to why that might be the case. Those who have a high level of emotional comprehension are usually able to put forward some potential reasons as to why their behavior has warranted anger. The other part of emotional comprehension is determining the consequences of certain feelings.

6.4.4 Managing Emotions How people manage emotions is also a significant part of emotional intelligence. Most of people would never succeed if they constantly let 147

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their emotions rule them. However, it would be futile to try to suppress all of your emotions all of the time. The best approach is to find some middle ground. You should be able to express your emotions when appropriate, as well as respond to the emotions that others express when appropriate. The level of emotional intelligence depends on your ability to manage your emotions effectively.

6.5 IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Emotional intelligence allows us to think more creatively and use our emotions to solve problems.

Daniel Goleman believes that emotional intelligence appears to be an important set of psychological abilities that relates to life success. 25 It is empathy and communication skills as well as social and leadership skills that will be central to your success in life and personal relationships. Goleman further argues that men particularly need to develop emotional skills, and he gives many examples of men with high intelligence, who were not successful because they had problems with their people skills. He found from his research that people with high emotional intelligence generally have successful relationships with family, friends and fellow workers. 26

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6.6 THEORIES OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE 6.6.1 The Self-Awareness Cluster: Understanding Feelings and Accurate Self-Assessment The first of the three Self-Awareness competencies, Emotional SelfAwareness, reflects the importance of recognizing one’s own feelings and how they affect one’s performance.

At another level, Self-Awareness is key to realizing one’s own strengths and weaknesses. Among several hundred managers from twelve different organizations, Accurate Self-Assessment was the hallmark of superior performance (Boyatzis, 1982).27 Individuals with the Accurate SelfAssessment competence are aware of their abilities and limitations, seek out feedback and learn from their mistakes, and know where they need to improve and when to work with others who have complementary strengths.

The positive impact of the Self-Confidence competence on performance has been shown in a variety of studies. Among supervisors, managers, and executives, a high degree of Self-Confidence distinguishes the best from the average performers (Boyatzis, 1982). 28

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6.6.2 The Self-Management Cluster: Managing Internal States, Impulses, and Resources The Self-Management cluster of EI abilities encompasses six competencies. Heading the list is the Emotional Self-Control competence, which manifests largely as the absence of distress and disruptive feelings. Signs of this competence include being unfazed in stressful situations or dealing with a hostile person without lashing out in return.

The Trustworthiness competence translates into letting others know one’s values and principles, intentions and feelings, and acting in ways that are consistent with them. Trustworthy individuals are forthright about their own mistakes and confront others about their lapses. A deficit in this ability operates as a career derailer (Goleman, 1998b) 29.

The signs of the Conscientiousness competence include being careful, self-disciplined, and scrupulous in attending to responsibilities. Conscientiousness distinguishes the model organizational citizens, the people who keep things running as they should.

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David McClelland’s landmark work “The Achieving Society (1961)” established Achievement Orientation as the competence that drives the success of entrepreneurs. In its most general sense, this competence, which he called Achievement Drive, refers to an optimistic striving to continually improve performance30. Studies that compare star performers in executive ranks to average ones find that stars display classic achievement-oriented behaviours—they take more calculated risks, they support enterprising innovations and set challenging goals for their employees, and so forth. Spencer and Spencer (1993) found that the need to achieve is the competence that most strongly sets apart superior and average executives. Optimism is a key ingredient of achievement because it can determine one’s reaction to unfavourable events or circumstances; those with high achievement are proactive and persistent, have an optimistic attitude toward setbacks, and operate from hope of success. Those with the Initiative competence act before being forced to do so by external events. This often means taking anticipatory action to avoid problems before they happen or taking advantage of opportunities before they are visible to anyone else. Individuals who lack Initiative are reactive rather than proactive, lacking the farsightedness that can make the critical difference between a wise decision and a poor one. 31

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6.6.3 The Social Awareness Cluster: Reading People and Groups Accurately The Social Awareness cluster manifests in three competencies. The Empathy competence gives people an astute awareness of others’ emotions, concerns, and needs. The empathic individual can read emotional currents, picking up on nonverbal cues such as tone of voice or facial expression. Empathy requires Self-Awareness; our understanding of others’ feelings and concerns flows from awareness of our own feelings. This sensitivity to others is critical for superior job performance whenever the focus is on interactions with people. For instance, physicians who are better at recognizing emotions in patients are more successful than their less sensitive colleagues at treating them (Friedman & Di Matteo, 1982)32. The ability to read others’ needs well comes naturally to the best managers of product development teams (Spencer & Spencer, 1993) 33. And skill in Empathy correlates with effective sales, as was found in a study among large and small retailers (Pilling & Eroglu, 1994)34. In an increasingly diverse workforce, the Empathy competence allows us to read people accurately and avoid resorting to the stereotyping that can lead to performance deficits by creating anxiety in the stereotyped individuals (Steele, 1997) 35.

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Organizational Awareness, the ability to read the currents of emotions and political realities in groups, is a competence vital to the behind-thescenes networking and coalition building that allows individuals to wield influence, no matter what their professional role. Insight into group social hierarchies requires Social Awareness on an organizational level, not just an interpersonal one. Outstanding performers in most organizations share this ability; among managers and executive generally, this emotional competence distinguishes star performers. Their ability to read situations objectively, without the distorting lens of their own biases and assumptions, allows them to respond effectively (Boytzis, 1982) 36.

6.6.4 The Relationship Management Cluster: Inducing Desirable Responses in Others The Relationship Management set of competencies includes essential Social Skills. Developing others involves sensing people’s developmental needs and bolstering their abilities—a talent not just of excellent coaches and mentors, but also outstanding leaders. Competence in developing others is a hallmark of superior managers; among sales managers, for example, it typifies those at the top of the field (Spencer and Spencer, 1993) 37. Although this ability is crucial for those managing front-line work, it has also emerged as a vital skill for effective leadership at high levels (Goleman, 2000b) 38. 153

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We practice the essence of the Influence competence when we handle and manage emotions effectively in other people and are persuasive. The most effective people sense others’ reactions and fine-tune their own responses to move interaction in the best direction. This emotional competence emerges over and over again as a hallmark of star performers, particularly among supervisors, managers, and executives (Spencer & Spencer, 1993)39. Star performers with this competence draw on a wider range of persuasion strategies than others do, including impression management, dramatic arguments or actions, and appeals to reason. At the same time, the Influence competence requires them to be genuine and put collective goals before their self-interests; otherwise what would manifest as effective persuasion becomes manipulation.

Creating an atmosphere of openness with clear lines of communication is a key factor in organizational success. People who exhibit the Communication competence are effective in the give-and-take of emotional information, deal with difficult issues straightforwardly, listen well and welcome sharing information fully, and foster open communication and stay receptive to bad news as well as good. This competence builds on both managing one’s own emotions and empathy; a healthy dialogue depends on being attuned to others’ emotional states and 154

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controlling the impulse to respond in ways that might sour the emotional climate.

A talent of those skilled in the Conflict Management competence is spotting trouble as it is brewing and taking steps to calm those involved. Here the arts of listening and empathizing are crucial to the skills of handling difficult people and situations with diplomacy, encouraging debate and open discussion, and orchestrating win-win situations. Effective Conflict Management and negotiation are important to longterm, symbiotic business relationships, such as those between manufacturers and retailers.

Those adept at the Visionary Leadership competence draw on a range of personal skills to inspire others to work together toward common goals. They are able to articulate and arouse enthusiasm for a shared vision and mission, to step forward as needed, to guide the performance of others while holding them accountable, and to lead by example. Outstanding leaders integrate emotional realities into what they see and so instil strategy with meaning and resonance. Emotions are contagious, particularly when exhibited by those at the top, and extremely successful leaders display a high level of positive energy that spreads throughout the organization. 155

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The acceleration of transitions as we enter the new century has made the Change Catalyst competence highly valued—leaders must be able to recognize the need for change, remove barriers, challenge the status quo, and enlist others in pursuit of new initiatives. An effective change leader also articulates a compelling vision of the new organizational goals. A leader’s competence at catalyzing change brings greater efforts and better performance from subordinates, making their work more effective (House, 1988) 40.

Outstanding performers with this competence balance their own critical work with carefully chosen favours, building accounts of goodwill with people who may become crucial resources down the line. One of the virtues of building such relationships is the reservoir of trust and goodwill that they establish; highly effective managers are adept at cultivating these relationships, whereas less effective managers generally fail to build bonds (Kaplan, 1991) 41.

The Collaboration and Teamwork competence has taken on increased importance in the last decade with the trend toward team-based work in many organizations. Teamwork itself depends on the collective EI of its members; the most productive teams are those that exhibit EI competencies at the team level (Druskat and Wolff)42. And 156

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Collaboration is particularly crucial to the success of managers; a deficit in the ability to work cooperatively with peers was, in one survey, the most common reason managers were fired (Sweeney, 1999) 43. Team members tend to share moods, both good and bad—with better moods improving performance (Totterdell, Kellett, Teuchmann, & Briner, 1998)44. The positive mood of a team leader at work promotes worker effectiveness and promotes retention (George & Bettenhausen, 1990) 45. Finally, positive emotions and harmony on a top-management team predict its effectiveness (Barsade & Gibson, 1999) 46.

6.6.5 Competence Comes in Multiples Although there is theoretical significance in showing that each competence in itself has a significant impact on performance, it is also in a sense an artificial exercise. In life—and particularly on the job—people exhibit these competencies in groupings, often across clusters, that allow competencies to support one another. Emotional competencies seem to operate most powerfully in synergistic groupings, with the evidence suggesting that mastery of a “critical mass” of competencies is necessary for superior performance (Boyatzis, Goleman, & Rhee, 2000) 47.

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Along with competency clusters comes the notion of a tipping point—the point at which strength in a competence makes a significant impact on performance. Each competence can be viewed along a continuum of mastery; at a certain point along each continuum there is a major leap in performance impact.

The extremely large effect from strengths in the Self-Management competencies suggests the importance of managing one’s emotions— using abilities such as self-discipline, integrity, and staying motivated toward goals—for individual effectiveness.

Organizations and individuals interface in ways that require a multitude of EI abilities, each most effective when used in conjunction with others. Emotional Self-Control, for instance, supports the Empathy and the Influence competencies. Finding a comfortable fit between an individual and an organization is easier when important aspects of organizational culture (rapid growth, for example) link to a grouping of competencies rather than a single competency.

6.7 DIMENSIONS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE 1. SELF AWARENESS is being aware of oneself 2. EMPATHY is feeling and understanding the other person 158

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3. SELF MOTIVATION is being motivated internally 4. EMOTIONAL STABILITY reflects the state of an individual that enables him or her to have appropriate feelings about common experiences and act in a rational manner. 5. MANAGING RELATIONS is the art or science of establishing and promoting a favourable relationship in the organisation. 6. INTEGRITY refers to a quality of a person’s character. It also involves being responsible for what you seek and undertake in life and being able to own up one’s own faults in case of failures. It encompasses the concept of wholeness, Intactness and purity about one’s thoughts, feelings and actions. 7. SELF DEVELOPMENT reflects efforts toward self-fulfilment, either through formal study programs or on one's own. 8. VALUE ORIENTATION reflects the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group. 9. COMMITMENT is a virtue and a personal trait that is learned very early in life. Being committed is a state of mind and is determined by number of factors. It is based on one’s own personal choices as well as the expectations from other people around us. It is also determined by the quality of relationship we share with people, groups, organizations or tasks that we are supposed to be committed to be 159

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10. ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR is the deliberate pursuit of the interests or welfare of others or the public interest

6.8 EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AT WORKPLACE A manager is a person who has to manage the mood of their organizations. The most gifted corporate leaders accomplish that by using a mysterious blend of psychological abilities known as emotional intelligence. They're self-aware and empathetic. They can read and regulate their own emotions white intuitively grasping how others feel and gauging their organization's emotional state.

Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been recently validated with major skill areas that can influence your career and create abilities that improve your worth at work. A very recent and excellent review of the EI literature (Dulewicz and Higgs, 2000) demonstrates clearly that EI impacts on work success48.

Studies of close to 500 organizations worldwide, reviewed by Goleman, indicate that people who score highest on EQ measures rise to the top of corporations. 'Star' employees possess more interpersonal skills and

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confidence, for example, than 'regular' employees who receive less glowing performance reviews49.

'Emotional intelligence matters twice as much as technical and analytic skill combined for star performances,' he says. 'And the higher people move up in the company, the more crucial emotional intelligence becomes.' Bosses and leaders, in particular, need high EQ because they represent the organization to the public, they interact with the highest number of people within and outside the organization and they set the tone for employee morale, says Goleman. Leaders with empathy are able to understand their employees’ needs and provide them with constructive feedback50.

Different jobs also call for different types of emotional intelligence. For example, success in sales requires the empathic ability to gauge a customer’s mood and the interpersonal skill to decide when to pitch a product and when to keep quiet.

“Don’t bring your personal problems to work” is one variation of the argument that emotions are inappropriate in the workplace. Business decisions, so the argument goes, should be based on information, logic

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and calm cool reason, with emotions kept to a minimum. But it is unrealistic to suppose that emotions can be checked at the door when you arrive at work. Some people may assume, for a variety of reasons, that emotional neutrality is an ideal, and try to keep feelings out of sight. Such people work and relate in a certain way: usually they come across as rigid, detached or fearful, and fail to participate fully in the life of the workplace. This is not necessarily bad in some situations, but it is usually not good for an organization for such people to move into management roles. The same would be true for people who emote excessively, who tell you how they feel about everything. Simply being around them can be exhausting.

Developing

emotional

intelligence

in

the

workplace

means

acknowledging that emotions are always present, and doing something intelligent with them. People vary enormously in the skill with which they use their own emotions and react to the emotions of others—and that can make the difference between a good manager and a bad one. It’s not overly egalitarian to suggest that most professionals, managers and executives are fairly smart people (of course there can be glaring exceptions), but there can be a huge difference in how well they handle people. That is, the department manager may be a genius in technical,

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product or service knowledge—and get failing marks in terms of people skills.

An employee with high emotional intelligence can manage his or her own impulses, communicate with others effectively, manage change well, solve problems, and use humour to build rapport in tense situations. These employees also have empathy, remain optimistic even in the face of adversity, and are gifted at educating and persuading in a sales situation and resolving customer complaints in a customer service role. This "clarity" in thinking and "composure" in stressful and chaotic situations is what separates top performers from weak performers in the workplace.

6.9 EMONATIONAL INTELLIGENCE & POLICE PERSONNEL In any policing controversy—excessive use of force, racial profiling, police suicide, discourtesy—separating human emotions from that controversy’s cause is difficult. An officer’s emotional intelligence— whether the lack of emotional awareness or the inability to control emotions—will emerge. There can be no escaping one’s emotions; indeed, if repressed, they cause even more problems. This is of particular

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concern to law enforcement, due to the myth that an officer should grin and bear emotional crises and shake them off at the end of the shift. Contemporary psychological research shows that the strong, silent type (typical of many police officers) cannot suppress human emotions without suffering serious consequences. Emotional intelligence is just as serious in training. Many officers are just now appreciating how deeply the emotional intelligence competencies affect the police profession. Indeed, emotional intelligence is at the core of policing. Most police training and education efforts have downplayed if not ignored the role of emotions. Often, academy educators leave it to field trainers to help new officers through emotionally charged and stressful situations.

Departments

occasionally

provide

stress

management

programs or use untrained mentors to help officers manage their emotions. But few of these approaches consider emotional intelligence. The main objectives of the EI training for Police Personnel are: • Becoming more aware of emotional triggers that can instigate an angry violent response

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• Learning tactics to manage one’s own mental state during stressful situations, such as a hazardous police chase • Being more attentive to the impact of daily emotions on long-term moods and attitudes toward colleagues and others.

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REFRENCES & NOTES 1. Cooper, R. K., & Sawaf, A. (1997). Executive EQ: emotional intelligence in leadership and organizations. New York: Grosset Putnum. 2. Ibid. 3. Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). “What is emotional intelligence?”. In P. Salovey, & D. Sluyter. Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications. New York: Basic Books. 4. Perkins, D. (1994). Outsmarting IQ: The Emerging Science of Learnable Intelligence. New York : The Free Press. 5. Sternberg, R. (1997). ``Managerial intelligence: Why IQ isn’t enough’’, Journal of Management, Vol. 23. 475-94. 6. Salovey, P., and Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality. 9, 185-211. 7. Schutte, et al. (1998). “Development and validity of a measure of emotional intelligence”. Personality and Individual Differences. 25, 167-177. 8. Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic Books. 9. Ryback, D. (1998). Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work: Successful Leadership Is More than IQ. Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn. 10. Ibid. 11. Ferres, N., and Connell J. (2004). “Emotional intelligence in leaders: an antidote for cynicism towards change?” Strategic Change 13 (2):61-71. 12. Singh, D. (2003). Emotional Intelligence at Work. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Sage Publications. 13. Ashkanasy,

N.M.

(2002).

“Studies

of

Cognition

and

Emotion

in

Organisations: Attribution, Affective Events, Emotional Intelligence and Perception of Emotion”. Australian Journal of Management. 27.11-20. 14. Dearborn, K. (2002). “Studies in Emotional Intelligence Redefine Our Approach to Leadership Development”. Public Personnel Management 31 (4).523-530.

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15. Gardner, L., and Stough C. (2002). “Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level managers”. Leadership & Organisation Development Journal 23 (1/2).68-78. 16. Weymes, E. (2003). “Relationships not leadership sustain successful organisations”. Journal of Change Management 3 (4). 319-331. 17. Slaski, M., and S. Cartwright. (2002). “Health, Performance and Emotional Intelligence: An Exploratory Study of Retail Managers”. Stress and Health. 18,63-68. 18. Nikolaou, I., and Tsaousis, I., (2002). “Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace: Exploring its Effects on Occupational Stress and Organisational Commitment”. International Journal of Organisational Analysis 10 (4). 327342. 19. Oginska- Bulik, N. (2005). “Emotional intelligence in the workplace: exploring its effects on occupational stress and health outcomes in human service workers”. International Journal Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Vol. 18(2). 167-75. 20. Palmer, B., Donaldson, C., and Stough, C. (2002). “Emotional Intelligence and Life Satisfaction”. Personality and Individual Differences. 33, 1091-1100. 21. Lord, G.R., Klimoski, R.J. and Kanfer R. (2002). Emotions In The Workplace: Understanding Emotions in Organisational Behavior. San Francisco: JosseyBass. 22. Mayer, J. D., DiPaolo, M. T., & Salovey, P. (1990). “Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence”. Journal of Personality Assessment. 54, 772-781. 23. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. England: Bantam Books, Inc. 24. Ibid. 25. Ibid. 26. Ibid. 27. Boyatzis, R. (1982). The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 28. Ibid. 29. Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. England: Bantam Books, Inc.

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30. McClelland, D. C.(1961). The Achieving Society. Princeton: Van Nostrand, Reinholdt. 31. Spencer, L., and Spencer, S. (1993). Competence at Work. New York: John Wiley. 32. Friedman HS, Di Matteo MR (1982). Interpersonal Issues in Health Care. New York: Academic Press. 33. Spencer, L., and Spencer, S. (1993). Competence at Work. New York: John Wiley. 34. Pilling, B.K. and Eroglu, S. (1994). “An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Salesperson Empathy and Professionalism and Salability on Retail Buyers’ Evaluations”. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. Winter. 35. Steele, C.M. (1997). “A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance”. American Psychologist, June. 36. Boyatzis, R. (1982). Op. Cit. 37. Spencer, L., and Spencer, S. (1993). Op. Cit. 38. Goleman, D. (2000b). “Leadership that Gets Results”. Harvard Business Review, March-April. 39. Spencer, L., and Spencer, S. (1993). Op. Cit. 40. Kaplan, R.E. (1991). Beyond Ambition: How Driven Managers Can Lead Better and Live Better. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 41. House, R.J. et al. (1988). “Charismatic and Non-Charismatic Leaders: Differences in Behavior and Effectiveness”. In Conger, J.A. et al. (Eds.). Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 42. Druskat, V.U. (1994), “Gender and leadership style: transformational and transactional leadership in the Roman Catholic Church”. Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 5. 99-119. 43. Sweeney, P. (1999). “Teaching New Hires to Feel at Home”. New York Times, February 14. 44. Totterdell, P., Kellett, S., Teuchmann, K., and Briner, R.R. (1998). “Evidence of Mood Linkage in Work Groups”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6). 1504-1515.

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45. George, J.M. and Bettenhausen, K. (1990). “Understanding Prosocial Behavior, Sales Performance, and Turnover: A group Level Analysis in a Service Context”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75. 698-709. 46. Barsade, Sigal and Gibson, Donald (1999). “Group Emotion: A View From Top and Bottom”. D. Gruenfeld, B. Mannix and M. Neale (eds.) Research on Managing Groups and Teams. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 47. Boyatzis, R., Goleman, D., and Rhee, K. (2000). “Clustering Competence in Emotional Intelligence: Insights From the Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI)”. In R. Bar-On and J.D.A. Parker (Eds.). Handbook of Emotional Intelligence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 48. Dulewicz, Higgs, M. (2000). “Emotional Intelligence”. A Review and Evaluation Study. Henley Management College, Henley-on-Thames. 49. Goleman, D. (1998b). “What Makes a Leader?”. Harvard Business Review, November-December. 50. Ibid.

169

Comparative analysis of Stress, Happiness, 16 Personality factors & Emotional Intelligence at pre and post training stages of the trainee constables Comparative analysis of Stress, Happiness, 16 Personality factors & Emotional Intelligence at pre and post training stages of the male trainee constables Comparative analysis of Stress, Happiness, 16 Personality factors & Emotional Intelligence at pre and post training stages of the female trainee constables

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

7. DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In order to understand various differences among all selected variables, this chapter has been divided into following parts. 1. Comparative analysis of Stress at pre and post training stages of the trainee constables. 2. Comparative analysis of Happiness at pre and post training stages of the trainee constables. 3. Comparative analysis of 16 Personality factors at pre and post training stages of the trainee constables. 4. Comparative analysis of Emotional Intelligence (Total and 10 dimensions) at pre and post training stages of the trainee constables. 5. Comparative analysis of Stress at pre and post training stages of the male trainee constables only. 6. Comparative analysis of Happiness at pre and post training stages of the male trainee constables only. 7. Comparative analysis of 16 Personality factors at pre and post training stages of the male trainee constables only. 8. Comparative analysis of Emotional Intelligence (Total and 10 dimensions) at pre and post training stages of the male trainee constables only. 170

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9. Comparative analysis of Stress at pre and post training stages of the female trainee constables only. 10.Comparative analysis of Happiness at pre and post training stages of the female trainee constables only. 11.Comparative analysis of 16 Personality factors at pre and post training stages of the female trainee constables only. 12.Comparative analysis of Emotional Intelligence (Total and 10 dimensions) at pre and post training stages of the female trainee constables only.

171

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.1 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “Stress”.

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

16.68 15.66

4.51 3.10

S.E.E. 0.20 0.14

M.D. 1.01

t-test 4.14

According to table No. 7.1, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of “Stress”, i.e. Before training programmes are 16.88±4.51,0.20, After training programmes are 15.66±3.10,0.14. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.10) and the ttest were statistically significant as the obtained value (4.14) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence.

It can be said on the basis of above Statistical result that the Stress level of trainee constables is decreased after the training. Their stress level is reduced. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

172

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.1 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “Stress”.

173

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.2 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “Happiness”. Training effectiveness

N

Mean

Before After

500 500

103.05 134.72

Std. Deviation 8.56 15.34

S.E.E. M.D. 0.38 0.69

31.67

t-test 40.31

According to table No. 7.2, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of “Happiness”, i.e. Before training programmes are 2.59±1.16, After training programmes are 134.72±15.34,0.69. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (31.67) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (40.31) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence.

Thus, it can be said that training enhanced the happiness level among trainee constables as the result shown above that the Happiness level of trainee constables is increased tremendously. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

174

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.2 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “Happiness”.

175

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.3 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Warmth” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

15.33 15.83

2.78 2.74

S.E.E. M.D. 0.12 0.12

ttest 0.50 2.86

According to table No. 7.3, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Warmth” i.e. Before training programmes

are 15.33±2.78,0.12, After

training programmes are

15.83±2.74,0.12. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.50) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.86) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. This can interpret that after the training, trainee constables became more warmhearted, easy-going, more attentive and adaptable. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

176

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.3 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Warmth”

177

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TABLE- 7.4 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Reasoning” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 8.17 500 8.25

Mean

Std. Deviation

S.E.E. M.D.

1.74 1.67

0.08 0.07

0.07

ttest 0.69

According to table No. 7.4, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs after of 16 Pf Dimension on “Reasoning” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.17±1.74, 0.08, After training programmes are 8.25±1.67. As per the table the bean difference of Before Vs After is (0.07) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (0.69) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the results shown trainee constables became fast learner, more intelligent and reasonable. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

178

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.4 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Reasoning”

179

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.5 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Emotional Stability” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

22.08 22.46

2.60 1.96

S.E.E. M.D. 0.12 0.09

ttest 0.39 2.65

According to table No. 7.5, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Emotional Stability” i.e. Before training programmes are 14.13±2.86, 0.13, After training programmes are 14.61±2.83, 0.13 per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.13) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.69) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Thus, trainee constables became more mature, more emotionally stable, and more realistic. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

180

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.5 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Emotional Stability”

181

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.6 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Dominance” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

22.08 22.46

2.60 1.96

S.E.E. M.D. 0.12 0.09

ttest -0.39 2.65

According to table No. 7.6, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Dominance” i.e. Before training programmes are 22.08±2.60,0.12, After training programmes are 22.46±1.96,0.09. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.39) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.65) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Therefore, after the training they became more assertive, more authoritarian and stubborn. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

182

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.6 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Dominance”

183

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.7 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Liveliness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

22.25 22.16

2.12 2.20

S.E.E. M.D. 0.09 0.10

ttest 0.09 0.66

According to table No. 7.7 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Liveliness” i.e. Before training programmes

are 22.25±2.12,0.09, After

training programmes are

22.16±2.20,0.10. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.09) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (0.66) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. It is stated on the basis of above result that after the training, trainee constables became less frank, more careless, and less talkative. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

184

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.7 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Liveliness”

185

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.8 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Rule Consciousness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

16.90 16.50

2.08 2.34

S.E.E.

M.D.

0.09 0.10

0.40

t-test 2.83

According to table No. 7.8 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Rule Consciousness” i.e. Before training programmes

are 16.90±2.08,0.09 &

After training

programmes are 16.50±2.34,0.10. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.05) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.83) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As trainee constables scored low after the training that shows that they became unsteady in purpose, more expedient, their superego is weaker than earlier. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

186

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.8 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Rule Consciousness”

187

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.9 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “social Boldness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

22.21 22.21

2.07 2.18

S.E.E. M.D. 0.09 0.10

ttest 0.00 0.01

According to table No. 7.9 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “social Boldness” i.e. Before training programmes are 22.21±2.07,0.09, & After training programmes are 22.21±2.18,0.00. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.00) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (0.01) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the results shows that there in not any change on the dimension of sociable bold. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

188

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.9 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “social Boldness”

189

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.10 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Sensitivity” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

16.99 17.22

2.02 1.94

S.E.E. M.D. 0.09 0.09

ttest 0.24 1.89

According to table No. 7.10 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Sensitivity” i.e. Before

training programmes are 16.99±2.02,0.09, After training programmes are 17.22±1.94,0.09. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.20) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (1.89) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence.

According to above

result it is clear that after the training, trainee constables are more protected, more sensitive and tender minded. They become less realistic. They might to tend to keep a group operating on a practical and nonrealistic “no-nonsense” basis. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

190

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.10 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Sensitivity”

191

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.11 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Vigilance” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.08 17.40

2.01 1.81

S.E.E. M.D. 0.09 0.08

ttest 0.32 2.65

According to table No. 7.11 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Vigilance” i.e. Before training programmes are 17.08±2.01,0.09, & After training programmes are 17.40±1.81,0.08. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.32) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.65) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. It can be said that after the training, the adaptability of trainee constables become lesser. They become more vigilant and hard to make them fool. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

192

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.11 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Vigilance”

193

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.12 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Abstractness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

21.85 22.33

2.90 2.37

ttest

S.E.E. M.D. 0.13 0.11

0.48 2.88

According to table No. 7.12 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Abstractness” i.e. Before training programmes are 21.85±2.90,0.13, & After training programmes are 22.33±2.37,011. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.48) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.88) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result shows trainee constables become less imaginative, less self motivated and more careful and proper. They become more concern over everyday matters. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

194

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.12 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Abstractness”

195

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.13 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Privateness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.14 17.35

S.E.E. M.D.

1.92 1.78

0.09 0.08

ttest -0.21 1.79

According to table No. 7.13 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Privateness” i.e. Before training programmes are 17.14±1.92,0.09, & After training programmes are 17.35±1.78,0.08. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.21) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (1.79) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the table values prove after training trainee constables become more analytical, calculative, but less sentimental. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

196

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.13 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Privateness”

197

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.14 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee

Constables

in

Rajasthan

on

16

Pf

Dimension

on

“Apprehensiveness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

21.39 22.32

3.15 2.17

S.E.E. M.D. 0.14 0.10

-0.93

t-test 5.46

According to table No. 7.14 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Apprehensiveness” i.e. Before training programmes are 21.39±3.15,0.14, & After training programmes are 22.32±2.17,0.10. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.93) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (5.46) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Accordance to calculate value trainee constables are became a little bit less apprehensive and depressed, but more confident, self assured and mature. hypothesis is accepted.

198

Hence Alternative

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.14 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee

Constables

in

Rajasthan

“Apprehensiveness”

199

on

16

Pf

Dimension

on

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.15 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Openness to change”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

” Std. Deviation

17.47 17.75

1.73 1.87

S.E.E. M.D. 0.08 0.08

0.28

t-test 2.45

According to table No. 7.15 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Openness to change ” i.e. Before training programmes

are 17.47±1.73,0.08 After

training

programmes are 17.75±1.87,0.08. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.28) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (2.45) is higher

than the tabulated value (1.97)

required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence.

It can be interpreted on the basis of result that trainee constables become more liberal and their critical and analytical ability also improved. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

200

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.15 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Openness to change”

201

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.16 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Self Reliance” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

16.97 17.21

S.E.E. M.D.

1.97 1.64

0.09 0.07

0.24

t-test 2.11

According to table No. 7.16 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Self Reliance” i.e. Before training programmes are 16.94±1.97,0.09, & After training programmes are 17.21±1.64,0.07. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.24) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (2.11) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Trainee constables become more self sufficient, prefer their own decisions. Their self concept improved and they better understand their worth. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

202

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.16 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Self Reliance”

203

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.17 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Perfectionism”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.15 17.31

S.E.E. M.D.

1.94 1.86

0.09 0.08

0.16

t-test 1.30

According to table No. 7.17 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Perfectionism” i.e. Before training programmes are 17.15±1.94,0.09, & After training programmes are 17.31±1.86,0.08. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.16) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (1.30) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As per the table value, it can be said that after the training, trainee constables become more controlled, more disciplined and more adjustable. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

204

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.17 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Perfectionism”

205

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.18 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension of “Tension” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

24.35 25.80

3.86 2.47

S.E.E. M.D. 0.17 0.11

ttest 1.44 7.04

According to table No. 7.18 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Tension” i.e. Before training programmes

are 24.35±3.86,0.17, After

training programmes are

25.80±2.47,0.11. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.44) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (7.04) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. It can be interpreted that trainee constables become more impatient, more frustrated and more restless. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

206

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.18 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension of “Tension”

207

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.19

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “Emotional Intelligence” “Training effectiveness

N

Mean

Before After

500 500

145.14 167.79

Std. Deviation

S.E.E. M.D.

21.01 10.60

0.94 0.47

t-test

22.65

21.52

According to table No. 7.19 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of Emotional Intelligence i.e. Before training programmes are 145.14±21.01,0.94 & After training programmes are 167.79±10.60,0.47. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (22.65) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (21.52) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result shows that after the training, trainee constables are more emotionally stable, their level of Emotional Intelligence increased very high after the training. Their ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions is improved. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

208

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

CHART- 7.19

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “Emotional Intelligence”

209

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.20 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional Intelligence Dimension of “Self awareness” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

15.52 17.51

4.16 1.54

S.E.E. M.D. 0.19 0.07

t-test

1.99

10.03

According to table No. 7.20 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Self

Awareness” i.e. Before training programmes are 15.52±4.16,0.19 & After training programmes are 17.51±1.54,0.07. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.99) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (10.03) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. After the training, trainee constables become more outgoing and extrovert in nature. They do not feel hesitation and are more self aware. Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

210

Hence

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.21 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Empathy”

“Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.22 22.09

6.59 2.02

S.E.E. M.D. 0.29 0.09

4.86

t-test 15.77

According to table No. 7.21 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “Empathy” i.e. Before training programmes

are 17.22±6.59,0.29 After

training

programmes are 22.09±2.02,0.09. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (4.86) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (15.77) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the calculated values of mean show trainee constables become more understanding and more concerned. In other words, it can be said that they become empathetic. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

211

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.22 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Self Motivation” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

19.76 26.83

9.09 2.10

S.E.E. M.D. 0.41 0.09

t-test 7.07 16.94

According to table No. 7.22 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Self

Motivation” i.e. Before training programmes are 19.76±9.09,0.41 & After training programmes are 26.83±2.10,0.09. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (7.07) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (16.94) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Trainee constables are highly motivated after the training. Their self motivational level is increased tremendously. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

212

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.23

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Emotional Stability” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

15.32 17.34

4.02 1.25

S.E.E. M.D. 0.18 0.06

t-test

2.02

10.72

According to table No. 7.23 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “Emotional Stability ” i.e. Before training programmes are 15.32±4.02,0.18 & After training programmes are 17.34±1.25,0.06. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (2.02) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (10.72) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Trainee constables were less emotionally stable before the training, but after the training they become very emotionally stable and more emotionally intelligent. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted

213

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.24

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Managing Relations” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

14.09 17.30

S.E.E. M.D.

4.63 1.84

0.21 0.08

3.21

t-test 14.41

According to table No. 7.24 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Managing Relations”

i.e. Before training programmes

are 14.09±4.63,0.21 &

After training programmes are 17.30±1.84,0.08. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (3.21) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (14.41) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Thus it can be interpreted that after the training, trainee constables become are better in managing their relations. Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

214

Hence

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.25 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Integrity” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

11.82 13.04

2.68 1.94

S.E.E. M.D. 0.12 0.09

1.22

t-test 8.27

According to table No. 7.25 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Integrity” i.e. Before training programmes are 11.82±2.68,0.12 & After training programmes are 13.04±1.94,0.09. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.22) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (8.27) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. After the training trainee constables become more reliable, more honest and more trustworthy than earlier. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

215

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.26 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Self Development” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.33 9.18

1.37 2.32

S.E.E. M.D. 0.06 0.10

0.85

t-test 7.06

According to table No. 7.26 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Self

development” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.33±1.37,0.06& After training programmes are 9.18±2.32,0.10. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.85) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (7.06) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. This can be said that after the training, trainee constables are more improved by behaviour. It means improvement in self even when situation do not demand. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted

216

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.27 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Value Oriented” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.49 9.39

1.34 2.21

S.E.E. M.D. 0.06 0.10

0.90

t-test 7.81

According to table No. 7.27 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Value

Oriented” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.49±1.34,0.06 & After training programmes are 9.39±2.21,0.10. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.90) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (7.81) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As per the table value, it can be said that after the training, trainee constables become more ethical and more moral oriented. They are highly principled after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

217

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.28 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Commitment” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.52 9.40

1.27 2.19

S.E.E. M.D. 0.06 0.10

0.88

t-test 7.75

According to table No. 7.28 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of

“ Commitment ” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.52±1.27,0.06 & After training programmes are 9.40±2.19,0.10. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.88) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (7.75) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result shows that trainee constables become more loyal. Their commitment towards their duty is increased after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

218

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.29 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Altruistic Behaviour” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

500 500

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.88 8.70

1.86 1.70

S.E.E. M.D. 0.08 0.08

t-test

0.18

1.60

According to table No. 7.29 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Altruistic Behaviour” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.88±1.86,0.08 & After training programmes are 8.70±1.70,0.08. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.18) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (1.60) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As per the statistical result, it can be interpreted that trainee constables become more selfish. They become more egocentric and self interested. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

219

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

MALE TRAINEE CONSTABLES TABLE- 7.30

STATISTICAL COMPARISON between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “STRESS “ Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

16.89 15.81

4.50 3.25

S.E.E. 0.25 0.18

M.D. 1.08

t-test 3.45

According to table No. 7.30, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of “Stress”, i.e. Before training programmes are 16.89±4.50, 0.25, After training programmes are 15.81±3.25,0.18. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.08) and the ttest were statistically significant as the obtained value (3.45) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result shows that the stress level of male trainee constables has been decreased after the training, it means that training programmes in Rajasthan Police Academy do not lead to stress. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

220

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.31

STATISTICAL COMPARISON between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “Happiness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

133.95 102.63

16.10 8.40

S.E.E. M.D. 0.91 0.48

t-test 31.32 30.51

According to table No. 7.31, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of “Happiness”, i.e. Before training programmes are 133.59±16.10, After training programmes are 102.63±8.40,0.48. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (31.32) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (30.51) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. In result table, it is clear that after the training; Happiness level of male trainee constables decreased that means Training Programmes conducting in RPA lead to unhappiness among the trainees. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

221

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.32

STATISTICAL COMPARISON between Before and After

Training

Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Warmth” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

15.32 15.84

2.84 2.71

S.E.E. M.D. 0.16 0.15

0.51

t-test 2.32

According to table No. 7.32, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Warmth” i.e. Before training programmes

are 15.32±2.84,0.16, After

training programmes are

15.84±2.71,0.15. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.51) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.32) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the statistical result shows that after the training; male trainee constables become a little bit more friendly, kind and affectionate.

Hence Alternative hypothesis is

accepted.

222

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.33

STATISTICAL COMPARISON between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Reasoning”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.25 8.19

1.80 1.62

S.E.E. M.D. 0.10 0.09

0.06

t-test 0.44

According to table No. 7.33, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Reasoning” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.25±1.80,0.10, After training programmes are 8.19±1.62,0.09. As per the table the bean difference of Before Vs After is (0.06) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (0.44) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. According to the result, it can be said that male trainee constables become more reasonable and logical. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

223

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.34 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Emotional Stability” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

14.19 14.67

2.81 2.73

S.E.E. M.D. 0.16 0.15

0.48

t-test 2.18

According to table No. 7.34, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Emotional Stability” i.e. Before training programmes are 14.19±2.81, 0.16, After training programmes are 14.67±2.73,0.15 per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.48) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.18) is higher

than the tabulated value (1.97)

required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. This can be interpreted on the basis of table value that male trainee constables become slightly more emotionally stable. They are more capable to manage their emotions. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

224

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.35 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Dominance”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

22.04 22.55

2.57 1.87

S.E.E. M.D. 0.15 0.11

0.51

t-test 2.84

According to table No. 7.35, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Dominance” i.e. Before training programmes are 22.04±2.57,0.15, After training programmes are 22.55±1.67,0.11. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.51) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.84) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence.

It can be said that after that the

training; male trainee constables become more dominant, more commanding and more authoritarian. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

225

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.36

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Liveliness”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

22.23 22.30

2.09 2.16

S.E.E. M.D. 0.12 0.12

t-test

0.07

0.43

According to table No. 7.36 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Liveliness” i.e. Before training programmes are 22.23±2.09,0.12, After training programmes are 22.30±2.16,0.12. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.07) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (0.43) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. This can be interpreted that male trainee constable are more active and more enthusiastic. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

226

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.37 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Rule Consciousness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

16.86 16.44

2.12 2.36

S.E.E. 0.12 0.13

M.D. 0.42

t-test 2.32

According to table No. 7.37 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Rule Consciousness” i.e. Before training programmes

are 16.90±2.08,0.09 &

After training

programmes are 16.86±2.12,0.13. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.42) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.32) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Male trainee constables become more particular about rules. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

227

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.38

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Social Boldness”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

22.28 22.16

2.14 2.15

S.E.E. M.D. 0.12 0.12

0.12

t-test 0.73

According to table No. 7.38 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Social Boldness” i.e. Before training programmes are 22.28±2.14,0.12, & After training programmes are 22.16±2.15,0.12. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.12) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (0.73) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. It can be said that after the training; trainee constables become quite less social. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

228

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.39

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Sensitivity( Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

16.99 17.23

2.02 1.81

S.E.E. M.D. 0.11 0.10

0.24

t-test 1.56

According to table No. 7.39 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Sensitivity” i.e. Before

training programmes are 16.99±2.02,0.11, After training programmes are 17.23±1.81,0.10. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.24) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (1.56) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Male trainee constables become more sensitive and more protective. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

229

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.40

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Vigilance” (Male group) Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.07 17.45

1.91 1.78

S.E.E. M.D. 0.11 0.10

ttest 0.38 2.56

According to table No. 7.40 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Vigilance” i.e. Before training programmes are 17.07±1.91,0.11, & After training programmes are 17.45±1.7,0.10. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.38) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.56) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Thus, it can be said that after the training; trainee constables become more doubtful in nature. Their vigilant tendency has been increased. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

230

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.41

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Abstractness” (Male group)

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

21.88 22.42

2.77 2.37

S.E.E. M.D. 0.16 0.13

ttest 0.54 2.64

According to table No. 7.41 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Abstractness” i.e. Before training programmes are 21.88±2.77,0.16, & After training programmes are 22.33±2.37,011. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.54) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.64) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Male trainee constables become more imaginative and careless after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

231

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.42

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Privateness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.16 17.45

1.91 1.67

S.E.E. M.D. 0.11 0.09

ttest 0.29 2.03

According to table No. 7.42 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Privateness” i.e. Before training programmes are 17.16±1.91,0.11, & After training programmes are 17.45±1.68,0.09. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.21) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.03) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. This can be said that after the training; male trainee constables become worldly, more penetrating and less sentimental. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

232

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.43

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Apprehensiveness”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

21.50 22.31

3.04 2.14

S.E.E. M.D. 0.17 0.12

ttest 0.81 3.86

According to table No. 7.43 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Apprehensiveness” i.e. Before training programmes are 21.50±3.04,0.17, & After training programmes are 22.31±2.14,0.12. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.81) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (3.86) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. According to the result, male trainee constables become more worried, more depressed and less confident. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

233

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.44

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Openness to change”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

312 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.58 17.70

1.66 1.91

S.E.E. M.D. 0.09 0.11

ttest 0.12 0.81

According to table No. 7.44 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Openness to change ” i.e. Before training programmes

are 17.58±1.66,0.09 After

training

programmes are 17.70±1.91,0.11. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.12) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (0.81) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Thus, male trainee constables become more liberal and more open to change. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

234

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.45

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Self Reliance”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.02 17.20

2.01 1.64

ttest

S.E.E. M.D. 0.11 0.09

0.18 1.22

According to table No. 7.45 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Self Reliance” i.e. Before training programmes are 17.02±2.01,0.11, & After training programmes are 17.20±1.64,0.09. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.18) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (1.22) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the statistical result shows that male trainee constables become more self sufficient and prefer to take their decisions. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

235

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.46

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Perfectionism”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.15 17.27

1.97 1.89

S.E.E. 0.11 0.11

M.D. 0.13

t-test 0.83

According to table No. 7.46 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Perfectionism” i.e. Before training programmes are 17.15±1.94,0.11, & After training programmes are 17.27±1.89,0.11. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.13) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (0.83) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

236

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.47

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension of “Tension”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

24.39 25.80

3.82 2.43

S.E.E. M.D. 0.22 0.14

1.41

t-test 5.50

According to table No. 7.47 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Tension” i.e. Before training programmes

are 24.39±3.82,0.22, After

training programmes are

25.80±2.43,0.14. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.41) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (5.50) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result table indicates, it can be said that male trainee constables become more frustrated, irritated and more restless. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

237

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.48

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “Emotional Intelligence” “Training effectiveness

N

Mean

Before After

313 313

144.01 167.59

Std. Deviation 20.22 10.68

S.E.E. M.D. 1.14 0.60

23.58

t-test 18.24

According to table No. 7.48 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of Emotional Intelligence i.e. Before training

programmes are 144.01±20.02,1.14 & After training programmes are 167.59±10.68,0.60. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (23.58) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (18.24) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result table indicates; Emotional Intelligence level of male trainee constables is increased. They better identify, use, understand and manage their emotions. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

238

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.49

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Self Awareness” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

15.53 17.51

4.14 1.58

S.E.E. M.D. 0.23 0.09

1.98

t-test 7.91

According to table No. 7.49 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Self

Awareness” i.e. Before training programmes are 15.53±4.14,0.23 & After training programmes are 17.51±1.58,0.09. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.98) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (7.91) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result shows, male trainee constables are more self aware. They have clear perception of their personality including strengths and weaknesses after the training. accepted.

239

Hence Alternative hypothesis is

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.50

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Empathy” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.08 22.12

6.55 2.04

S.E.E. M.D. 0.37 0.12

t-test 5.04 12.99

According to table No. 7.50 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of Emotional Intelligence Dimension of “ Empathy” i.e. Before training programmes

are 17.08±6.55,0.37. After training

programmes are 22.12±2.04, 0.12. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (5.04) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (15.77) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result table shows; male trainee constables become more reasonable. They better understand what another person is experiencing from within the other person's frame of reference than earlier. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

240

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.51

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Self Motivation” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

19.39 26.72

9.10 2.17

S.E.E. M.D. 0.51 0.12

t-test 7.33 13.86

According to table No. 7.51 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Self

Motivation” i.e. Before training programmes are 19.30±9.10,0.51 & After training programmes are 26.72±2.17,0.12. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (7.33) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (13.86) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Male trainee constables are extremely self motivated after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

241

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.52

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Emotional Stability” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

15.22 17.29

4.00 1.24

S.E.E.

M.D.

t-test

0.23 0.07

2.07

8.74

According to table No. 7.52 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Emotional Stability” i.e. Before training programmes are 15.22±4.00,.23 & After training programmes are 17.29±1.24,0.07. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (2.07) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (8.74) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the statistical analysis shows; after the training trainee constables more emotionally stable and they can manage their emotions very well after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

242

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.53

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Managing Relations” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

13.89 17.21

4.61 1.86

S.E.E. M.D. 0.26 0.11

t-test 3.33 11.85

According to table No. 7.53 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Managing Relations”

i.e. Before training programmes

are 13.89±4.61,0.26 &

After training programmes are 17.21±1.86,0.11. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (3.33) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (11.85) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As par the result, it can be interpreted that after the training; male trainee constables become warmer, more capable to maintain relations. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

243

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.54

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Integrity” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

11.74 12.99

2.67 1.97

S.E.E. M.D. 0.15 0.11

ttest 1.25 6.65

According to table No. 7.54 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Integrity” i.e. Before training programmes are 11.74±2.67,0.15 & After training programmes are 12.09±1.97,0.11. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.25) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (6.65) is higher

than the tabulated value (1.97)

required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the calculated values indicate, it can be said that the moral values of male trainee constables become high after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

244

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.55

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Self Development” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.31 9.24

1.38 2.32

S.E.E. M.D. 0.08 0.13

ttest 0.93 6.12

According to table No. 7.55 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Self

Development” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.31±1.38,0.08 & After training programmes are 9.24±2.32,0.13. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.93) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (6.12) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. According to result, it can say that after the training; male trainee constables want to be more skilled. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

245

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.56

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Value Orientation” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.49 9.36

1.41 2.19

S.E.E. M.D. 0.08 0.12

0.87

t-test 5.92

According to table No. 7.56 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of

“ Value

Orientation” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.49±1.41,0.08 & After training programmes are 9.36±2.19,0.12. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.90) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (5.92) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Thus, it can be interpreted that male trainee constables become more aware of their values, more ethical than earlier. hypothesis is accepted.

246

Hence Alternative

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.57

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Commitment” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.50 9.41

1.30 2.23

S.E.E. M.D. 0.07 0.13

0.91

t-test 6.21

According to table No. 7.57 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of

“ Commitment” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.50±1.30,0.07 & After training programmes are 9.41±2.23,0.91. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.88) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (6.21) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result table shows; it can interpret that after the training male trainee constables become more responsible, more liable and more dedicated. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

247

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.58

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Altruistic Behaviour” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

313 313

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.78 8.69

1.87 1.71

S.E.E. M.D. 0.11 0.10

0.09

t-test 0.65

According to table No. 7.58 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Altruistic Behavior” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.78±1.87,0.11 & After training programmes are 8.69±1.71,0.10. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.09) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (0.65) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Therefore, it is clear that male trainee constable become more selfish, more self centric. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

248

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

FEMALE TRAINEE CONSTABLES TABLE- 7.59 STATISTICAL COMPARISON between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “STRESS” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

16.31 15.41

4.52 2.83

S.E.E. 0.33 0.21

M.D. 0.90

t-test 2.31

According to table No. 7.59, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of “Stress”, i.e. Before training programmes are

16.31±4.5, 0.33, After training programmes are 15.41±2.83,0.21. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.90) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.31) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As a result, it can infer that female trainee constables fell less worried and anxious after the training. They are more relaxed. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

249

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.60 STATISTICAL COMPARISON between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “Happiness.” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

136.01 103.77

13.93 8.79

S.E.E. M.D. 1.02 0.64

t-test 32.25 26.78

According to table No. 7.60, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before programmes

Vs After

of “Happiness”, i.e. Before training

are 136.01±13.91,1.02, After

training programmes are

103.77±8.79,0.64. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (32.25) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (26.78) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. So, it can say that female trainee constables become more blissful, more contented and led misery after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

250

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.61 STATISTICAL COMPARISON between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Warmth” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

15.35 15.83

2.68 2.80

S.E.E. M.D. 0.20 0.20

t-test

0.48

1.68

According to table No. 7.61, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Warmth” i.e. Before training programmes

are 15.35±2.68,0.20, After

training programmes are

15.84±2.71,0.15. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.48) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (1.68) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result shows, it can be said; after the training female trainee constables are more friendly, more kind and more understanding. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

251

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.62 STATISTICAL COMPARISON between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Reasoning” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.04 8.34

1.63 1.75

S.E.E. M.D. 0.12 0.13

0.30

t-test 1.71

According to table No. 7.62, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of 16 Pf Dimension on “Reasoning” i.e. Before

training programmes are 8.04±1.63,0.12, After training programmes are 8.34±1.75,0.13. As per the table the bean difference of Before Vs After is (0.30) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (1.31) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Female trainee constables are more sensible, more rational and more logical after the training. Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

252

Hence

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.63 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Emotional Stability” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

14.03 14.52

2.95 3.00

S.E.E.

M.D.

0.22 0.22

0.49

t-test 1.58

According to table No. 7.63, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Emotional Stability” i.e. Before training programmes are 14.03±2.95, 0.22, After training programmes are 14.52±3.00, 0.22 per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.49) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (1.58) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Thus, female trainee constables turn into more emotional intelligent. They manage their feelings, their emotions in a better way. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

253

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.64 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Dominance” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation S.E.E.

22.13 22.31

2.65 2.11

0.19 0.15

M.D. 0.18

t-test 0.71

According to table No. 7.64, which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Dominance” i.e. Before training programmes are 22.13±0.19,0.19, & After training programmes are 22.31±2.11,0.15. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.18) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (0.71) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result table shows, it can be said that; after the training female trainee constables become quite more authoritarian, more commanding and less submissive. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

254

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.65 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Liveliness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

22.29 21.93

2.17 2.26

S.E.E. M.D. 0.16 0.17

0.36

t-test 1.59

According to table No. 7.65 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Liveliness” i.e. Before training programmes

are 22.29±2.17,0.17, After

training programmes are

21.33±2.26,0.17. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.36) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (1.59) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Thus, female trainee constables are less energetic, less active and more lethargic than earlier. Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

255

Hence

Chapter- 7

Statistical

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

Comparison

TABLE- 7.66 between Before

and

After

Training

Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Rule Consciousness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

16.96 16.60

2.01 2.31

S.E.E. 0.15 0.17

M.D. 0.36

t-test 1.63

According to table No. 7.66 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Rule Consciousness” i.e. Before training programmes

are 16.96±2.01,0.15 &

After training

programmes are 16.60±2.31,0.17. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.36) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (1.63) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be

significant at .05 level of confidence. According to

statistical analysis; it can be interpreted that after the training female trainee constables become less rule bounded, more expedient and less dominated by sense of duty. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

256

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.67 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “social Boldness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

22.09 22.29

1.94 2.23

S.E.E. M.D. 0.14 0.16

0.20

t-test 0.94

According to table No. 7.67 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “social Boldness” i.e. Before training programmes are 22.9±1.94,0.14, & After training programmes are 22.29±2.23,0.16. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.20) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (0.94) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result table shows, it can be said that there is no change in social boldness of female trainee constables. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

257

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.68 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Sensitivity” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

16.97 17.20

2.02 2.14

S.E.E. M.D. 0.15 0.16

0.23

t-test 1.07

According to table No. 7.68 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Sensitivity” i.e. Before

training programmes are 16.97±2.02,0.15,& After training programmes are 17.2±2.14,0.16. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.23) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (1.07) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

258

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.69 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Vigilance” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.10 17.33

2.16 1.86

S.E.E. M.D. 0.16 0.14

-0.22

t-test 1.08

According to table No. 7.69 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Vigilance” i.e. Before training programmes are 17.10±2.16,0.16, & After training programmes are 17.33±1.86,0.14. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.22) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (1.08) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. According to the statistical analysis; it can be interpreted that female trainee constables become more alert, more attentive and cautiousness. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

259

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.70 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “Abstractness”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

21.80 22.18

3.12 2.38

S.E.E. M.D. 0.23 0.17

0.38

t-test 1.32

According to table No. 7.70 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Abstractness” i.e. Before training programmes are 21.8±3.12,0.23, & After training programmes are 22.18±2.38,017. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.38) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (1.32) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Like the result proves; this can say that female trainee constables are more hypothetical, more abstruse and less real after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

260

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.71 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Privateness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.10 17.17

1.95 1.94

S.E.E. M.D. 0.14 0.14

0.07

t-test 0.37

According to table No. 7.71 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Privateness” i.e. Before training programmes are 17.10±1.95,0.14, & After training programmes are 17.17±1.94,0.14. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.07) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (0.37) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be

significant at .05 level of confidence. Female trainee

constables prefer less being social and choose to be alone than earlier. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

261

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.72 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Apprehensiveness” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

21.20 22.34

3.34 2.23

S.E.E. M.D. 0.24 0.16

1.14

t-test 3.88

According to table No. 7.72 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “Apprehensiveness” i.e. Before training programmes are 21.80±3.34,0.24, & After training programmes are 22.34±2.23,0.16. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.14) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (3.88) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be

significant at .05 level of confidence. After the training; female

trainee constables become more suspicion, more concerned and less calm. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

262

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.73 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Openness to change” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Std. Deviation S.E.E. M.D.

Mean 17.29 17.84

1.83 1.80

0.13 0.13

0.55

t-test 2.93

According to table No. 7.73 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Openness to Change” i.e. Before training programmes

are 17.29±1.83,0.13, & After

training

programmes are 17.84±1.80,0.13. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.55) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (2.93) is higher

than the tabulated value (1.97)

required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Thus, female trainee constables become more flexible after the training. They adopt changes more easily. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

263

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.74 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “

Self

Reliance” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

16.88 17.23

1.90 1.63

S.E.E. M.D. 0.14 0.12

0.35

t-test 1.90

According to table No. 7.74 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Self Reliance” i.e. Before training programmes are 16.88±1.90,0.14, & After training programmes are 17.23±1.63,0.12. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.35) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (1.90) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. So, this can interpret that female trainee constables become more self determined, more self sufficient and less dependent on others. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.75 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension on “ Perfectionism” Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.16 17.36

1.89 1.80

S.E.E. M.D. 0.14 0.13

0.20

t-test 1.06

According to table No. 7.75 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Perfectionism” i.e. Before training programmes are 17.16±1.89,0.14, & After training programmes are 17.36±1.80,0.13. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.20) and the t-test were

statistically insignificant as the

obtained value (1.06) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As par the statistical analysis; it can say that female trainee constables seek more perfectionism and accuracy in their work after the result. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.76 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on 16 Pf Dimension of “ Tension”

Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

24.29 25.80

3.94 2.53

S.E.E. M.D. 0.29 0.18

1.50

t-test 4.39

According to table No. 7.76 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of 16 Pf Dimension on “ Tension” i.e. Before training programmes

are 24.29±3.94,0.29, After

training programmes are

25.80±2.53,0.18. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.50) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (4.39) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be

significant at .05 level of confidence. After the training; female

trainee constables become more relax, more ease and less rigid. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.77 Statistical Comparison between Before

and After

Training

Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on “Emotional Intelligence” “Training effectiveness

N

Mean

Before After

187 187

147.04 168.12

Std. Deviation 22.19 10.49

S.E.E. M.D. 1.62 0.77

21.08

t-test 11.75

According to table No. 7.77 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of Emotional Intelligence i.e. Before training programmes are 147.04±22.19,1.62 & After training programmes are 168.12±10.49,0.77. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (21.08) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (11.75) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the statistical analysis indicates that the Emotional Intelligence level of female trainee constables is increased and they are far better to manage their emotions, their feelings after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

267

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.78 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Self Awareness” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

15.51 17.51

4.20 1.46

S.E.E. M.D. 0.31 0.11

2.00

t-test 6.15

According to table No. 7.78 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Self

Awareness” i.e. Before training programmes are 15.51±4.20,0.31 & After training programmes are 17.51±1.46,0.11. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (2.00) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (6.15) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Consequently, female trainee constables become more self aware. They know themselves in a better way after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

268

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.79 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional Intelligence Dimension of “ Empathy” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

17.46 22.03

6.67 1.99

S.E.E. M.D. 0.49 0.15

t-test

4.57

8.98

According to table No. 7.79 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of

“Empathy”

i.e. before training programmes are 17.46±6.67, 0.49, &. After training programmes are 22.03±1.99, 0.15. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (4.57) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (8.98) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Therefore, Female trainee constables are more understanding. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

269

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Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.80 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Self Motivation” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

20.37 27.01

9.06 1.97

S.E.E. M.D. 0.66 0.14

ttest 6.63 9.78

According to table No. 7.80 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of “Self

Motivation” i.e. Before training programmes are 27.37±9.06,0.66 & After training programmes are 27.01±1.97,0.14. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (6.63) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (9.78) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Female trainee constables are highly self motivated after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

270

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.81 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Emotional Stability” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

15.50 17.43

4.05 1.26

S.E.E. M.D. 0.30 0.09

1.93

t-test 6.22

According to table No. 7.81 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Emotional Stability” i.e. Before training programmes are 15.50±4.05,0.30 & After training programmes are 17.43±1.26,0.09. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.93) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (6.24) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. After the training; female trainee constables emotionally stable and strong after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

271

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.82 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Managing Relations” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

14.42 17.44

4.67 1.79

S.E.E. M.D. 0.34 0.13

3.02

t-test 8.25

According to table No. 7.82 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Managing Relations”

i.e. Before training programmes

are 14.42±4.67,0.34 &

After training programmes are 17.44±1.79,0.13. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (3.02) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (8.25) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. After the training; female trainee constables become more effective in handling the relations. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

272

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.83 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Integrity” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

11.95 13.14

2.71 1.88

S.E.E. M.D. 0.20 0.14

1.19

t-test 4.92

According to table No. 7.83 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Integrity” i.e. Before training programmes are 11.95±2.71,0.20 & After training programmes are 13.14±1.88,0.14. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (1.19) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (4.92) is higher

than the tabulated value (1.97)

required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Therefore, female trainee constables become more honest after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

273

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.84

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Self Development” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.36 9.08

1.37 2.33

S.E.E. M.D. 0.10 0.17

0.72

t-test 3.63

According to table No. 7.84 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Self

Development” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.36±1.37,0.10 & After training programmes are 9.08±2.33,0.17. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.72) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (3.63) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. It can be said that female trainee constables want to be more skilled and to use their full potential in attainment of goal. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

274

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.85 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Value Orientation” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.48 9.43

1.22 2.24

S.E.E. M.D. 0.09 0.16

0.95

t-test 5.09

According to table No. 7.85 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Value

Orientation” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.48±1.22,0.09 & After training programmes are 9.43±2.24,0.16. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.95) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (5.09) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. Hence, Female trainee constables are value oriented after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

275

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.86 Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “Commitment” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

8.56 9.39

1.20 2.13

S.E.E. M.D. 0.09 0.16

0.83

t-test 4.63

According to table No. 7.86 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before

Vs After

of emotional intelligence Dimension of

“Commitment” i.e. Before training programmes are 8.56±1.20,0.09, & After training programmes are 9.39±2.13,0.16. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.88) and the t-test were statistically significant as the obtained value (4.63) is higher than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. According to statistical analysis, this can interpret that female trainee constables become more dedicated, more faithful after the training. Hence Alternative hypothesis is accepted.

276

Chapter- 7

Data Analysis, Result And Discussion

TABLE- 7.87

Statistical Comparison between Before and After Training Programme of Trainee Constables in Rajasthan on Emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Altruistic Behavior” “Training effectiveness

N

Before After

187 187

Mean

Std. Deviation

9.06 8.73

1.82 1.68

S.E.E. M.D. 0.13 0.12

0.33

t-test 1.80

According to table No. 7.87 which indicates that Mean, S.D & S.E.E. of Before Vs After of emotional intelligence Dimension of “ Altruistic Behavior” i.e. Before training programmes are 9.06±1.82,0.13 & After training programmes are 8.73±1.68,0.12. As per the table the mean difference of Before Vs After is (0.33) and the t-test were statistically insignificant as the obtained value (1.80) is less than the tabulated value (1.97) required for t-test to be significant at .05 level of confidence. As the result table shows, this can say that after the training; female trainee constables become more selfish, more egocentric and less philanthropic. Hence Alternative hypothesis is rejected.

277

Introduction Major findings Limitations Suggestions Scope for the further research Conclusion

Chapter- 8

Findings, Suggestions And Conclusion

8. FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION

8.1 INTRODUCTION This Chapter presents the major objectives of the research. The analysis is done for the primary data collected from 500 trainee constables from Rajasthan Police Academy, Jaipur. The t-test followed by mean, standard deviation, standard error, mean deviation clearly revealed the following as per the objectives. 8.2 MAJOR FINDINGS 8.2.1 Findings Pertaining To Objective-1 (To determine whether there is any significant difference in Stress level after training programmes in Rajasthan police.)  The statistical analysis reveals that Stress level of trainee constables is reduced after the training. Research discloses that the training programmes carry out at RPA do not lead to any mental and physical tension. Training programmes for trainee constable help them to manage their stress somehow

. 278

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Findings, Suggestions And Conclusion

8.2.2 Findings Pertaining To Objective-2 (To determine whether there is any significant difference in Happiness level after training programmes in Rajasthan police.)  The statistical analysis reveals that Happiness level of trainee constables is increased after the training. Research unveils that the Happiness level of trainee constables enhances after the training, It shows that the training programmes in Rajasthan Police Academy for trainee Constables increases the Happiness level. There is not anything in training programmes which make trainee constables unhappy or joyless. 8.2.3 Findings Pertaining To Objective-3 (To determine whether there is any significant difference in Personality Factors after training programmes in Rajasthan police.)  The statistical analysis reveals that Personality of trainee constables is changed after the training. Some changes are good, while others are negative.  Research discloses that many positive traits of personality of trainee constables are boosted. They become friendlier, more intelligent, more emotionally stable, more sensitive, more vigilant,

279

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Findings, Suggestions And Conclusion

more confidential, more self sufficient, more perfect and more open to change after the training.  As the research reveals that the training programmes conduct at Rajasthan Police Academy, Jaipur have some negative impact on Personality characteristics of trainee constables. The liveliness, rule consciousness, apprehensiveness is increased after the training program. While, some negative traits like dominance and tension is increased among them.  According to the interpretation of Data analysis, social boldness of the trainee constables remains unchanged. Training programmes do not lead to any change on the dimension of sociable bold. 8.2.4 Findings Pertaining To Objective-4 (To determine whether there is any significant difference in Emotional Intelligence level after training programmes in Rajasthan police.)  As the research shows that Emotional Intelligence of trainee constables is increased after the training. Research unveils that the mean of Emotional Intelligence level of trainee constables rises extremely. It shows that the training programmes in Rajasthan

280

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Findings, Suggestions And Conclusion

Police Academy for trainee Constables make them emotionally strong and stable.  As per the Statistical analysis shows that training programmes have many positive impacts on emotional intelligence of trainee constables. They are more extrovert, cleverer, highly emotional stable, more passionate, more reliable, more exploratory, more accountable and highly confident.  Simultaneously training programmes have some negative impacts also. They become more aggressive, shrewder, more orthodox, more undisciplined and more disorganized. 8.2.5 Findings Pertaining To Objective-5 (To study the difference of Stress level between male and female trainee constables after the training programmes.)  As the statistical analysis indicates that male trainee constables are quite high on stress. Female trainee constables are quite better in handling stressful events.

Female trainee constables are quite

better to do job under stressful situation or they react less to a stressful event than male trainee constables.

281

Chapter- 8

Findings, Suggestions And Conclusion

8.2.6 Findings Pertaining To Objective-6 (To study the difference of Happiness level between male and female trainee constables after the training programmes.)  The research makes clear that female trainee constables are happier than male trainee constables. Female constables become more joyful, more contented after the training. 8.2.7 Findings Pertaining To Objective-7 (To study the differences in the Personality factors of male and female trainee constables after the training programmes.)  The research makes it visible that personality of trainee constable is changed after the training. Some changes are beneficial, while others are not as much. As the research shows that on some personality factors male trainee constables are good, while female trainee constables are excellent on other personality factors.  Statistical analysis clears it male trainee constables are more extrovert, more emotionally firm, more intelligent and more confidential than female trainee constables after the training. Male trainee constables become a little bit friendlier while dealing with strangers than female trainee constables. They can manage their emotions in a better way than female trainee constables. Male 282

Chapter- 8

Findings, Suggestions And Conclusion

trainee constables think more rationally and logically after the training than their female batch mates.  As the research discloses that after the training female trainee constables become more active, more dynamic, and more attentive towards their duty and laws than male trainee constables. Female trainee constables become more social, more self confident and seek more perfection than male trainee constables. They accept change easily than their male counterpart.  The research proves that there is no difference on the level of tension, depression among all trainee constables, whether they are males or females. 8.2.8 Findings Pertaining To Objective-8 (To study the difference of Emotional Intelligence level between male and female trainee constables after the training programmes.)  The statistical analysis indicates that female trainee constables are more emotionally intelligent than male trainee constables. Female trainee constables are better to manage their feelings, their emotions in any circumstances than male trainee constables. But, on many dimensions male trainee constables perform better while

283

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Findings, Suggestions And Conclusion

on some dimensions of emotional intelligence female trainee constables are more effective after the training.  As the result shows, male trainee constables are brighter, more emotionally stable, more brave, more responsible, more self confident and more disciplined than female trainee constables.  On the other hand female trainee constables are more hostile, shrewder, wiser but more reliable, and more open-minded than male trainee constables after the training. 8.3 LIMITATIONS  The present study data is collected from Rajasthan Police Academy, Jaipur only. Data could be collected from various Police Training Schools of Rajasthan.  The present study data of pre training is collected without rapport building. A proper rapport building would be established before data collection.  Post training data is collected after the nine months training. To do more effective research data could be collected after indoor training as well as after outdoor training.  A follow up study could have been conducted to see the long term effects. 284

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 Time given to fill the questionnaires was a little bit short.  The study is not an end in itself, rather it has its heuristic purpose i.e., it need to begin from where it ends. 8.4 SUGGESTIONS Based on the above findings the following suggestions

are

recommended.  Result reveals that liveliness of the trainee constables decreased after the training. Hence the training program should be designed in such manner which increases dynamism of trainees.  As the statistical analysis indicates that the rule consciousness of trainee constables is decreased after the training which is not a good sign, a police personnel must be law abided. So, training environment should be like that which improve their sense of responsibility, their realization.  As the result shows, dominance of the trainee constables is increased after the training. A constable should be public friendly because he is the face of police organization in public. For this reason during the training they must trained to be people friendly. 285

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 According to findings trainee constables become more careless. As abstractness of trainee constables increased after the training. They think apart the reality. They should train in a way so that they can think about reality in detail.  Training programmes must boost the apprehensiveness and self confidence of trainee constables, but as the result shows they became moody and get easily depressed. Training programmes should plan like that which increases their selfbelief.  Policing is a team work, must be mutual understanding and belief among all. But the statistical analysis reveals that trainee constables are less oriented in group work after the training. Training programmes should include some activities those improve their trust in group, become more group cohesive in nature.  During the training programmes, there should be some sessions in which trainees could show their creativity.

286

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8.5 SCOPE FOR THE FURTHER RESEARCH  Similar study may be taken at all levels of trainees in police organization. Training efficacy may be measure at all levels (IPS, RPS, SI, etc.).  This study involved only newly recruited trainee constables. Training efficacy of any other training program (Refresher, promotional, special training) may also be studied.  Co relational studies may be attempted. Correlation between different variables may be studied.  The present study has examined stress, happiness, personality and emotional intelligence. To measure psychological efficacy of training programmes, other behavioral and psychological variables may be studied in the future.  Present study has examined the psychological changes of trainee constables during the training period only. Further studies may explore the behavioral changes on same variables of constables during the service.

287

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8.6

Findings, Suggestions And Conclusion

CONCLUSION

The functioning conditions of the policemen are lagging behind in many aspects –social as well as human, his training deficient in equipping him to meet the task pressures, public blame bad enough to add to his frustration and overall work surroundings which is dehumanizing and deintellectualizing. Training is in an integral and important part of the police organization. If training is proper and effective then it can lead to a stress free and happy professional life.

On the basis of above discussion it can be said that the training programmes conducted by Rajasthan Police Academy, Jaipur for trainee constables are effective on psychological parameters. Their stress level is reduced while, happiness level and emotional intelligence level increased after the training. This means that the training programmes for trainee constables do not lead to any stress and increase the happiness and raise emotional intellince, which is a positive sign. There are many positive significant changes take place after the training. They become more rational, more reasonable, more vigilant, and more confident after the training.

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Hence it can be concluded that training programmes for trainee constables are highly effective.

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MAGAZINES  Luthans, F. (2002). Positive organisational behaviour: developing and managing psychological strengths for performance improvement. Academy of Management Executive, 16 (1).  Myers, D. & Diener, E. (1995). Who is Happy? Psychological Science.  Phillips, L.(July, 1997). Rise of Psychometrics. People Management.  Richman, L.S. (May, 1994). How to get ahead in America. Fortune.  Woody, F.(March, 2011). Why Personality matters in the Workplace. Forbusiness.

REPORTS  Pestonjee, D.M. (1988). Review of Stress research in India. Indian Institute of Management, Ahamdabad.  The Gore Committee Report on Police Training (1971). Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India.

WEBSITES       

www.economywatch.com www.isma.org.uk www.rajpolice.nic.in www.rpa.nic.in www.india-seminar.com/1999/483/483%20sankar%20sen.htm www.stressmanagemnt.org www.wikipedia.org

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Type 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

AGE 19 22 20 22 23 21 25 24 18 20 21 21 24 18 24 23 20 19 22 20 23 21 24 25 22 22 25 24 19 18 20 24 21 19 18 26 24 25 19 18 18 18 27 24 22 20 19 18 23 21 20 24 25 24 19 18 25 19 22 21 23 22 21 20 18 24 24 22 20 19 18 23 18

nage

SEX F M M M M M M M F F F M M M F F M M F F M M M M F F F M M M M F F F F F F M M M M M F M M M M M F F F M M F M M F F F F F F F M M M F F M M M M M

nses 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

nedu

EDU UG G G G PG G PG PG 12 UG UG UG G 12 G G UG UG G UG G G PG PG G G G PG UG 12 UG PG UG UG 12 PG G PG UG UG UG UG PG PG PG UG UG UG G UG UG PG PG PG UG UG PG UG G G G G G UG 12 G G G UG UG 12 G UG

STRESS 18 21 19 28 18 21 26 23 23 21 29 23 18 16 20 20 27 20 23 24 21 24 24 9 10 18 24 12 18 10 25 9 24 18 21 8 25 16 14 21 24 19 21 17 20 18 25 19 23 10 21 16 18 21 14 19 9 15 11 16 10 12 15 17 14 18 10 13 17 20 15 6 13

happiness 104 147 124 149 154 140 119 137 129 93 117 103 128 149 143 147 102 130 82 137 146 118 122 152 148 145 137 148 144 104 70 149 115 141 68 149 125 147 144 146 137 142 143 148 146 150 135 149 144 152 147 145 149 143 148 145 151 146 143 147 144 148 147 145 140 144 149 145 147 144 145 150 147

A 10 11 9 17 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 13 19 13 11 17 16 14 19 15 10 16 16 14 13 18 17 14 19 15 13 17 14 12 10 17 14 14 16 15 18 17 16 19 10 13 15 17 13 13 13 13 16 17 12 14 16 18 16 13 14 13 16 17 14 13 12 18 15

B 6 5 8 9 11 7 9 6 7 5 8 13 10 6 8 7 10 3 7 6 5 7 8 7 8 7 7 5 6 6 4 5 9 11 9 4 7 12 8 5 4 7 8 6 10 10 9 9 8 10 8 9 8 10 9 9 9 6 10 6 10 10 8 10 9 7 7 8 10 7 8 9 6

C 18 12 15 16 14 18 13 17 11 15 17 9 12 13 15 15 16 17 17 17 14 14 17 16 17 18 13 16 16 16 14 11 17 11 15 17 10 10 18 13 18 17 16 18 18 9 18 18 17 16 16 15 17 18 8 11 11 5 7 8 7 6 9 7 14 13 15 12 14 13 14 15 15

E 15 24 20 24 23 24 23 23 23 24 16 13 23 24 25 20 21 23 23 24 22 24 18 19 22 23 24 25 20 23 22 24 24 23 23 20 18 21 24 16 11 13 15 17 18 14 11 16 13 11 26 23 21 25 26 25 26 24 26 21 19 26 23 26 22 26 20 17 24 20 23 18 20

F 20 22 18 19 24 23 24 23 22 23 24 23 24 21 32 18 23 21 24 23 20 20 24 23 23 23 25 22 24 24 24 23 20 20 19 21 16 13 15 14 19 17 21 22 22 23 24 23 18 23 24 22 21 22 23 24 22 20 22 18 19 24 23 24 19 22 23 24 25 20 23 22 24

G 17 16 18 18 17 18 19 20 19 18 18 16 17 18 15 15 19 18 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 20 18 14 17 17 19 20 20 13 13 14 13 18 14 18 13 14 16 13 14 16 17 19 18 16 13 14 19 17 18 15 17 18 20 19 12 17 17 17 14 14 17 16 17 18 20 16 16

H 19 23 24 18 23 22 23 24 24 21 20 23 20 23 19 24 23 19 23 23 20 23 20 23 22 22 22 18 23 21 23 22 24 22 23 23 23 24 23 23 23 23 22 24 18 22 24 18 22 23 22 24 23 24 23 23 20 22 21 24 20 24 18 23 24 24 22 22 23 24 22 23 22

I 16 14 11 17 11 15 17 19 10 17 18 17 17 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 13 19 13 11 17 16 14 19 15 10 16 16 14 13 18 17 14 19 15 13 17 17 16 15 17 18 16 17 17 20 18 17 20 18 16 20 17 19 19 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15

L 6 19 18 16 17 16 16 16 16 15 19 18 16 17 18 12 17 18 19 20 16 18 18 18 17 18 20 16 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 13 19 13 11 17 16 14 19 15 10 16 16 14 13 18 17 14 19 15 13 17 16 18 18 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15

M 13 23 20 23 22 22 22 18 23 23 23 24 23 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 13 19 13 11 17 16 14 19 15 10 16 16 14 13 18 17 14 19 15 13 17 22 22 18 23 23 23 24 23 24 24 23 22 23 24 18 23 22 23 24 24 23 22 24 24 20 24 24 23

N 17 20 18 19 16 13 14 16 17 19 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 13 19 13 11 17 16 14 19 15 10 16 16 14 13 18 17 14 19 15 13 17 17 17 19 18 18 18 18 17 19 18 16 18 17 18 11 14 19 18 19 16 16 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15

O 13 23 18 22 24 24 20 25 23 24 24 22 21 23 23 24 22 24 22 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 13 19 13 11 17 16 14 19 15 10 16 16 14 13 18 17 14 19 15 13 17 24 20 23 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 13 19 13 11 17 16 14 19

Q1 21 20 20 18 18 16 16 18 18 18 19 18 17 20 19 20 16 17 17 16 16 17 18 18 19 18 18 17 19 16 16 20 18 14 15 20 18 18 18 20 17 19 17 20 19 18 15 18 17 19 16 20 19 18 19 17 17 19 16 14 18 19 17 17 16 18 17 18 20 18 14 15 20

Q2 14 11 17 11 15 17 19 10 17 18 17 17 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 17 13 19 14 17 18 14 19 18 19 16 16 19 17 19 20 17 16 18 18 19 18 18 18 17 17 18 19 18 18 16 16 18 18 18 19 18 17 20 19 20 16 17 17 16 16 17 18 18 14

Q3 18 16 17 18 15 15 17 18 16 18 16 17 17 20 14 11 17 11 15 17 19 10 17 18 17 17 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 18 18 18 17 19 18 20 19 20 11 18 12 12 13 20 17 17 18 16 19 17 18 19 15 20 18 17 18 16 18 20 15 12 14 11 17

Q4 12 26 27 24 26 27 27 26 17 27 27 28 26 24 28 28 24 26 27 27 21 24 26 26 28 26 27 26 29 26 27 24 26 28 27 18 18 16 16 18 18 18 19 18 17 20 19 20 16 17 17 16 16 17 18 18 19 26 18 18 16 16 18 18 18 19 18 17 20 19 20 16 17

t1 9 7 10 10 10 8 9 17 18 18 18 17 18 18 18 16 17 18 17 20 18 18 20 18 15 20 17 18 17 18 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 19 20 19

t2 12 15 23 16 21 21 21 17 18 18 18 17 18 18 18 16 17 18 17 20 18 18 20 18 15 20 17 18 17 18 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9

t3 9 7 10 10 17 18 18 18 17 18 18 18 16 17 18 17 20 18 18 20 18 15 20 17 18 17 18 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 27 29 30

t4 17 9 7 10 17 18 18 18 17 18 18 18 16 17 18 17 20 18 18 20 18 15 20 17 18 17 18 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 18 17

t5 15 14 16 13 9 7 10 10 17 18 18 18 17 18 18 18 16 17 18 17 20 18 18 20 18 15 20 17 18 17 18 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7

t6 11 11 14 11 10 10 14 14 10 14 15 13 14 14 13 12 14 11 15 11 12 12 14 14 14 15 14 13 14 14 14 12 11 12 12 13 15 12 15 13 15 14 15 12 14 13 14 15 15 14 14 14 14 15 13 9 7 10 10 10 8 9 9 7 7 7 10 7 10 8 8 9 10

t7 7 10 9 6 10 6 10 10 8 10 9 6 7 8 10 12 10 8 10 9 12 10 10 10 6 8 5 8 4 6 7 7 7 8 7 8 9 7 7 9 7 8 8 9 10 9 8 8 9 10 9 8 9 8 9 10 5 8 7 9 10 9 9 8 9 8 10 8 10 8 9 10 9

t8 9 10 10 8 10 8 10 10 8 10 9 10 10 9 8 6 10 8 8 8 12 5 4 10 10 6 9 8 7 8 4 8 9 8 7 9 7 6 8 10 7 7 8 10 10 9 9 8 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 7 10 9 7 9 8 9 9 8 10 7 10 8 10 8 10 9 9

t9 10 10 9 8 10 10 9 10 7 10 10 10 10 10 9 8 10 8 9 8 9 5 4 10 10 5 10 10 10 7 7 7 7 9 8 9 7 8 7 10 7 7 9 10 7 8 7 9 10 10 9 9 10 9 9 8 8 9 8 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 9 9 8 9 10 9 10

t10 7 8 7 6 10 7 14 14 10 14 15 13 14 14 13 12 14 11 15 11 12 12 5 14 14 6 14 13 14 14 14 12 11 12 12 13 15 12 15 13 15 14 15 12 14 13 14 15 15 14 14 14 10 9 10 8 9 10 7 8 8 10 10 8 9 9 10 10 7 8 10 7 8

t11 9 7 10 10 10 8 9 9 7 7 7 10 7 10 8 8 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 10

t12 10 8 8 7 8 9 10 8 9 14 14 10 14 15 13 14 14 13 12 14 11 15 11 12 12 14 14 14 15 14 13 14 14 14 12 11 12 12 13 15 12 15 13 15 14 15 12 14 13 14 15 15 14 14 14 5 8 9 8 10 8 10 6 6 9 9 7 7 9 7 8 9 8

et 125 116 133 115 142 130 152 155 146 169 169 160 161 168 164 156 171 158 166 167 169 151 156 170 157 150 166 145 144 142 120 114 112 110 103 116 114 104 117 122 112 115 122 116 118 116 112 125 122 123 120 120 114 116 110 91 93 106 102 111 106 113 105 97 102 97 102 96 100 97 134 143 146

T74 T75 T76 T77 T78 T79 T80 T81 T82 T83 T84 T85 T86 T87 T88 T89 T90 T91 T92 T93 T94 T95 T96 T97 T98 T99 T100 T101 T102 T103 T104 T105 T106 T107 T108 T109 T110 T111 T112 T113 T114 T115 T116 T117 T118 T119 T120 T121 T122 T123 T124 T125 T126 T127 T128 T129 T130 T131 T132 T133 T134 T135 T136 T137 T138 T139 T140 T141 T142 T143 T144 T145 T146 T147

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

26 24 24 25 19 21 20 23 21 21 18 25 23 22 18 25 21 21 21 22 24 21 26 25 20 18 21 23 25 21 24 19 23 21 25 21 18 23 21 19 19 22 26 21 22 20 24 19 22 21 24 25 19 24 20 25 21 22 25 24 20 22 23 19 21 26 24 21 23 20 24 25 21 20

M F F M M M F F M M M F M M M M F F F M F F F M M M F M M M M F M M F F F M M M F M M M M M F F M M M M M M F M F M F M M F M M F M M F M M M M F M

1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1

PG PG PG PG UG UG UG G G UG UG PG G G 12 PG G G G UG PG G PG PG G UG G G G G G UG G G PG G 12 G G UG UG G PG G G UG G UG G G PG PG G PG G G G G PG PG UG G G UG G PG PG G G G PG PG G UG

16 20 23 16 14 20 24 19 13 25 12 10 24 19 20 22 25 20 21 25 15 10 16 19 27 21 18 24 18 21 24 18 23 20 15 18 26 22 9 16 17 21 22 26 21 25 20 23 16 13 19 11 15 18 14 17 12 14 17 13 16 19 24 21 17 20 23 25 21 18 13 16 20 23

148 144 147 138 146 124 136 137 145 134 149 146 135 146 148 137 108 144 130 127 137 147 124 134 128 126 134 137 149 148 114 127 129 137 123 139 142 147 142 137 124 134 137 138 135 146 143 143 134 138 134 143 146 137 132 148 116 105 149 150 148 143 126 130 139 133 137 126 131 142 149 145 137 135

15 14 16 12 14 14 14 12 11 17 18 16 15 14 12 16 14 13 15 15 12 16 13 15 17 13 15 12 17 12 19 15 13 14 15 12 16 17 13 14 12 16 19 13 15 12 17 18 13 15 11 14 12 13 14 15 13 18 12 15 14 17 14 16 12 8 13 16 12 9 12 15 12 15

9 7 8 8 7 9 6 8 9 13 8 7 9 6 8 6 6 8 9 10 9 6 12 8 9 7 7 8 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 12 10 7 9 6 11 9 13 6 9 5 9 4 7 8 10 13 10 9 8 9 9 6 8 9 6 8 9 8 9 8 7 11 13 8 7

12 17 14 11 18 17 15 15 17 17 15 15 17 16 17 18 16 10 8 10 8 11 13 14 13 12 15 15 15 13 10 14 7 10 11 11 13 13 15 14 15 13 15 15 14 13 15 14 14 13 15 13 13 6 12 15 13 14 15 14 13 15 14 13 13 11 13 13 13 15 11 12 15 13

24 24 21 25 19 20 22 21 25 23 23 24 25 20 23 22 24 24 23 23 24 22 21 20 18 24 18 23 21 20 22 18 23 21 23 22 24 22 23 23 23 24 22 22 24 24 22 23 23 23 24 24 22 23 23 23 24 25 18 22 24 24 24 23 24 23 24 24 20 24 20 24 23 23

24 23 23 24 22 21 20 22 24 23 24 23 24 23 22 24 23 25 23 24 25 20 18 20 19 23 23 24 24 23 23 22 19 19 23 23 25 18 20 19 21 24 26 24 23 23 24 22 21 20 22 18 23 21 23 22 23 24 22 22 23 24 22 24 24 18 24 20 23 23 23 21 24 20

16 14 11 17 19 18 18 16 19 14 17 19 19 17 19 16 17 20 19 16 17 17 16 16 17 18 18 17 17 17 18 19 18 19 17 18 20 18 17 18 18 20 19 20 17 20 18 19 20 15 17 19 16 19 17 18 17 17 19 18 16 19 17 19 16 17 20 17 18 19 20 17 16 16

25 21 23 22 24 22 23 24 23 22 24 23 25 23 24 25 20 18 20 19 23 24 23 25 22 24 24 24 20 23 22 22 22 18 23 21 22 21 23 22 21 24 23 25 22 21 24 23 24 23 20 24 23 23 25 18 20 18 20 22 21 22 24 24 20 24 23 23 24 22 24 24 18 24

16 13 19 13 11 17 16 14 19 15 10 16 16 14 13 18 17 14 19 15 13 17 18 15 15 17 18 16 18 16 17 17 20 20 20 18 18 16 16 18 18 18 19 18 17 20 19 20 17 17 19 14 15 13 13 17 17 12 16 14 17 18 17 15 15 20 17 18 17 18 18 18 18 18

16 13 19 13 11 17 16 14 19 15 10 16 16 14 13 18 17 14 19 15 13 17 17 17 17 19 18 18 19 16 16 16 18 19 19 19 16 19 18 19 20 16 13 17 17 12 16 14 17 18 17 16 17 17 16 16 17 18 18 19 18 18 17 19 16 16 20 18 14 15 20 18 18 18

24 21 25 18 20 18 20 22 21 22 20 24 23 24 18 21 20 24 25 22 22 24 24 16 23 21 21 24 22 23 23 24 25 18 22 24 24 23 22 23 24 23 22 23 24 23 23 22 24 22 23 24 23 24 25 23 24 23 22 24 23 24 25 21 23 23 24 22 24 18 19 22 23 24

16 13 19 13 11 17 16 14 19 15 10 16 16 14 13 18 17 14 19 15 13 17 16 18 18 17 14 17 17 18 19 20 20 18 17 17 18 19 18 18 16 18 16 16 17 16 20 17 19 17 18 17 18 18 17 17 13 18 20 17 18 15 18 17 19 16 20 19 19 18 16 18 17 19

15 10 16 16 14 13 18 17 14 19 15 13 17 21 21 21 22 18 18 17 17 16 18 18 19 18 18 18 17 17 18 22 22 18 23 23 23 24 23 24 24 23 23 22 23 24 24 22 23 23 23 24 25 18 22 24 24 23 22 23 20 23 23 21 18 23 21 23 22 24 22 23 23 24

18 18 12 17 15 16 17 15 15 17 17 15 17 18 17 19 17 19 17 19 17 18 16 20 20 11 18 12 12 13 20 17 17 18 16 17 19 17 18 20 18 19 18 18 17 17 16 17 18 18 17 19 19 18 17 17 19 18 14 16 17 19 18 16 13 17 19 17 19 19 16 19 18 19

11 17 11 15 17 19 10 17 18 17 17 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 17 20 19 20 16 17 17 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 18 20 18 19 16 13 14 16 17 19 18 16 13 14 19 17 18 15 14 18 14 11 17 11 15 17 19 10 17 18 17 17 15 14 16 14 12 14

11 15 17 19 10 17 18 17 17 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 15 14 17 18 14 19 18 20 19 19 15 20 18 17 19 18 18 18 17 17 18 19 18 18 16 18 20 20 18 17 19 18 19 16 19 17 19 19 18 17 15 15 17 19 20 18 17 18 16 18 20 15 12 19

17 16 16 17 18 18 19 18 18 16 16 18 18 18 19 18 17 20 19 20 16 17 17 16 16 17 18 18 19 27 18 18 16 16 18 18 18 19 18 17 20 19 20 16 17 17 16 16 17 18 18 19 27 21 24 25 23 26 28 26 28 27 28 26 27 28 16 28 25 27 27 24 25 28

19 16 19 18 19 17 18 19 19 17 20 17 18 19 20 17 16 16 15 17 18 19 16 17 16 15 17 18 20 19 16 18 19 19 20 16 18 20 17 18 17 18 18 18 17 18 18 18 16 17 18 17 20 18 18 20 18 15 20 17 18 17 18 18 18 18 18 17 19 18 20 19 17 18

8 8 7 7 7 8 24 23 24 23 24 20 19 24 25 24 22 21 23 22 21 24 23 25 22 21 24 23 24 23 20 23 24 18 23 21 20 24 24 17 18 18 18 17 18 18 18 16 17 18 17 20 18 18 20 18 15 20 17 18 17 18 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7

28 26 30 28 30 26 28 29 27 26 29 26 28 27 28 29 26 27 28 26 28 29 28 30 26 28 29 26 29 27 26 29 28 26 25 27 28 28 29 24 26 28 27 27 25 28 27 27 26 29 28 22 28 28 27 29 27 26 29 26 28 29 24 27 27 24 29 9 7 10 10 10 8 9

19 17 20 18 19 9 7 10 10 10 8 9 9 7 7 7 10 7 10 8 8 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7

8 18 19 19 17 16 19 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 18 17 9 7 10 10 10 8 9 9 7 7 7 10 7 10 8 8 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9

9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 15 13 13 15 6 6 14 13 14 12 10 13 14 10 12 7 14 14 15 14 13 12

9 9 8 9 10 10 10 8 9 9 10 8 9 9 10 9 6 7 10 9 6 10 6 10 10 8 10 9 6 7 8 10 12 10 8 10 9 12 10 10 10 6 8 5 8 4 6 7 7 7 10 10 8 9 9 10 7 7 10 8 9 7 9 9 8 9 8 9 7 8 9 9 7 10

8 9 8 9 10 9 9 8 8 9 9 8 10 9 9 10 9 9 8 9 9 10 10 7 8 8 8 9 10 9 8 8 9 10 8 9 9 9 7 8 9 9 10 7 8 10 10 7 8 8 9 8 9 9 10 10 7 7 9 8 10 7 8 10 7 8 8 7 6 7 10 9 8 9

9 10 9 10 8 9 9 8 9 10 9 8 10 10 9 9 9 8 9 8 7 10 9 6 8 10 10 8 10 7 9 9 7 10 7 8 10 9 8 8 9 9 8 8 7 7 8 8 8 10 9 9 9 10 8 9 8 8 9 8 10 8 8 8 8 8 9 7 8 8 10 7 7 9

9 10 10 8 9 8 10 8 9 8 9 9 8 9 9 9 9 9 7 9 8 8 9 7 9 8 10 6 9 9 10 8 8 8 8 9 8 10 7 7 8 10 9 9 7 9 9 9 9 10 10 6 10 8 9 10 9 9 9 9 8 7 7 9 9 7 8 8 7 9 9 9 7 10

8 8 9 10 10 8 9 8 6 8 9 10 8 8 8 9 9 8 9 8 7 7 7 7 7 9 8 7 9 10 8 9 10 7 9 9 10 8 10 10 9 7 10 8 10 10 8 8 10 10 8 10 8 8 9 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8

8 9 10 8 10 6 7 9 7 9 10 10 8 9 9 9 9 9 7 9 8 8 8 6 9 7 9 7 7 10 9 10 9 9 9 9 8 7 8 10 10 8 10 10 7 7 9 10 7 7 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 6 6 9 9 7 7 9 7 8 9 10 9 6 7 6 10 6

142 149 158 152 159 136 157 154 156 155 165 152 155 159 160 157 141 137 144 142 140 150 143 142 140 138 148 141 149 148 137 151 151 145 142 145 145 150 145 138 142 138 145 137 133 136 139 136 131 139 140 137 152 145 151 155 133 129 150 139 146 134 125 137 131 129 135 108 109 115 122 112 109 114

T148 T149 T150 T151 T152 T153 T154 T155 T156 T157 T158 T159 T160 T161 T162 T163 T164 T165 T166 T167 T168 T169 T170 T171 T172 T173 T174 T175 T176 T177 T178 T179 T180 T181 T182 T183 T184 T185 T186 T187 T188 T189 T190 T191 T192 T193 T194 T195 T196 T197 T198 T199 T200 T201 T202 T203 T204 T205 T206 T207 T208 T209 T210 T211 T212 T213 T214 T215 T216 T217 T218 T219 T220 T221

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

23 19 24 22 21 24 22 26 19 25 20 23 25 22 24 18 20 24 21 23 21 21 23 25 21 23 22 24 20 21 23 25 26 24 19 20 22 24 21 23 20 24 22 21 19 23 24 20 21 24 21 23 26 24 20 23 19 25 21 22 21 24 23 21 20 25 18 24 22 21 24 23 19 24

F M F F M M M M M F M M M F M M M F M M M F M M M F F M M M F F F F M M M M M F M M M M M M M F F M M M M M M F F F M M M M M F M M M F M M M M M M

2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

G UG PG G G G G PG UG PG UG G PG G PG 12 UG G G G G G G PG G G G PG UG G G PG PG G UG UG G G UG G UG PG G G UG G G UG G G G G PG PG UG G UG PG G G G PG G G UG PG UG G G G G G UG G

21 24 16 15 19 10 12 17 14 11 13 16 17 13 16 20 24 21 16 19 23 10 14 9 11 17 13 19 25 21 16 8 15 6 17 20 18 21 24 16 11 13 15 17 18 14 11 16 13 11 15 19 12 16 10 21 23 17 10 14 11 9 13 16 13 20 17 19 23 19 23 21 24 25

150 125 148 143 147 146 139 137 140 134 137 146 143 149 124 132 116 142 149 139 135 147 145 138 141 136 147 143 123 135 148 142 125 150 143 144 142 124 105 148 147 144 142 145 146 144 141 147 149 144 142 133 150 129 131 108 126 131 150 146 145 149 149 150 143 134 137 123 124 116 105 128 123 108

16 20 10 13 17 13 12 9 12 15 7 13 14 9 12 16 16 15 12 7 13 16 14 19 17 19 17 19 20 19 12 17 17 17 14 14 17 16 17 18 20 18 17 17 19 18 16 19 20 20 15 17 19 17 19 20 20 18 17 17 17 14 12 14 14 7 15 12 15 11 14 13 14 13

10 12 9 6 8 13 9 5 7 9 6 7 9 5 11 13 9 6 8 3 7 9 3 6 8 5 4 7 7 6 9 9 7 9 4 12 8 10 7 7 9 8 10 10 7 8 9 8 7 8 12 7 8 6 8 9 6 5 9 8 13 10 9 8 12 7 9 4 5 8 9 13 8 7

14 10 6 10 13 14 15 13 14 18 12 18 17 16 14 16 17 14 19 18 18 17 14 16 17 18 15 15 14 14 14 7 14 13 9 12 10 13 14 14 13 14 15 14 14 18 17 15 12 11 12 17 17 10 17 14 16 18 16 13 14 16 17 17 18 16 13 14 14 17 13 12 13 13

23 25 22 24 24 24 23 24 21 23 22 24 22 23 23 24 24 23 25 23 23 24 21 20 21 16 17 16 18 16 18 16 17 16 18 16 18 24 24 23 24 24 23 21 20 21 23 20 23 23 24 24 26 16 23 21 21 24 22 23 23 21 18 23 23 24 24 22 23 22 24 24 20 24

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15 17 18 19 16 17 16 18 17 19 18 16 17 16 16 16 17 16 16 16 19 13 20 19 17 18 14 14 18 19 19 16 14 17 18 14 17 13 18 17 17 19 18 19 17 19 16 13 14 16 17 19 18 9 11 15 13 14 12 15 13 14 12 14 14 7 15 12 15 11 18 19 16 19

20 23 23 23 21 24 20 19 20 23 19 24 23 19 23 23 22 22 24 21 25 23 22 24 24 23 19 23 23 22 22 24 21 25 22 24 24 24 26 26 26 21 18 22 22 24 24 24 20 24 23 24 23 23 22 20 22 24 23 22 23 24 23 24 21 32 18 23 21 24 23 24 23 22

17 19 18 20 19 15 18 17 19 16 20 19 18 19 17 17 17 19 16 14 18 19 19 15 20 18 17 18 16 18 20 15 12 19 18 18 18 17 20 11 19 19 20 19 17 18 18 17 17 13 18 20 17 18 17 16 16 17 18 18 17 17 17 18 19 18 17 16 20 20 11 18 12 12

20 17 19 17 20 19 18 20 11 18 12 12 13 20 17 17 18 16 17 19 17 18 17 15 15 17 17 15 17 18 17 19 17 19 17 19 17 18 17 17 16 18 17 18 20 18 14 15 20 18 18 14 18 18 17 17 16 18 18 19 18 18 18 17 17 18 19 15 14 17 18 14 19 18

25 20 23 22 24 23 24 24 20 24 23 24 24 23 24 23 24 24 23 23 22 23 25 23 24 25 20 18 20 19 23 24 23 24 23 24 20 19 24 26 21 25 20 21 24 17 26 16 23 24 22 21 20 18 20 19 18 20 18 20 20 20 19 21 24 25 20 21 23 23 24 22 24 18

16 16 18 17 16 19 17 19 16 19 18 16 17 16 16 16 16 15 19 18 16 17 16 16 19 17 19 20 19 17 18 20 17 12 19 20 12 16 14 17 18 17 15 17 19 17 18 20 17 12 19 20 19 17 18 18 18 17 18 18 18 16 17 18 17 20 18 17 16 16 15 18 17 18

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20 17 18 15 18 17 19 16 20 19 18 19 17 17 17 20 16 18 16 17 18 12 17 18 18 17 17 18 19 18 18 16 18 16 17 19 16 18 19 17 16 18 19 18 18 17 17 15 18 16 16 18 12 18 17 16 14 16 17 14 19 18 18 17 19 19 17 19 20 17 16 18 18 19

11 17 11 15 17 19 10 17 18 17 17 15 14 16 14 12 16 16 15 19 15 16 16 18 18 17 18 19 20 20 18 17 18 15 15 17 17 15 17 18 17 19 17 19 17 19 17 18 22 22 17 16 18 18 19 18 18 18 17 17 18 19 18 18 16 18 20 15 16 17 18 17 16 18

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28 27 27 27 28 26 28 29 28 28 25 22 28 26 28 26 26 27 24 27 24 25 24 28 26 27 26 25 23 24 24 23 23 22 19 19 21 23 19 24 16 13 28 27 23 24 25 28 25 21 20 28 28 25 28 23 26 26 24 21 26 27 28 28 27 26 28 27 26 29 28 26 27 28

16 20 20 18 18 16 16 18 18 18 19 18 17 20 19 20 12 18 20 16 17 20 16 9 7 10 10 10 8 9 9 7 7 7 10 7 10 8 8 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8

9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 24 16 13 23 24 25 20 23 22 24 24 23 23 24 22 21 20 18 24 18 23 18 22 24 24 20 25 23 24 24 22 21 23 23 24 22 24 18 19

9 7 7 7 10 7 10 8 8 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 29 29 26 27 28 28 27 26 29 24 22

8 16 18 18 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 18 17 18 17 19 15 17 18 16 18 18 18 17 16 18 17 16 16 18 16 16 17 18 19 16 14 11 18 19 20 16 16 17 18 18 16 19 18 17 18 17 20 16 17 18 17 18 18 19 17 17 19 20 19 16 18 18 19 16 16 19 17 15

10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 13 19 17 19 16 18 18 17 17 20 19 15 17 19 16 18 18 17 19 18 16 18 17 18 20 11 14 19 18 18 17 19 19 17 19 20 19 16 19 18 19 18 14 14 14 17 20 18 19 20 18 20 17 17 19 18 12 18 17 16 14 16

9 11 15 13 14 12 15 13 14 12 14 14 7 15 12 15 11 14 13 14 13 15 13 10 14 12 14 14 15 13 12 14 14 14 13 14 11 12 6 14 15 12 12 15 15 14 14 13 15 11 12 15 13 14 10 6 10 13 14 15 13 14 15 14 14 15 15 12 14 14 14 12 10 11

8 10 10 10 9 9 7 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 8 6 8 10 6 7 8 7 7 6 10 9 7 10 9 6 10 6 10 10 8 10 9 6 7 8 10 12 10 8 10 9 12 10 10 10 6 8 5 8 4 6 7 7 7 8 10 9 9 9 6 7 8 7 8 6 7 9 6

9 10 7 9 8 8 10 10 5 9 6 6 6 7 7 8 7 8 10 10 10 10 8 7 5 7 6 7 10 9 6 10 6 10 10 8 10 9 6 7 8 10 12 10 8 10 9 12 10 10 10 6 8 5 8 4 6 7 7 7 8 10 9 10 10 9 9 8 6 7 8 7 8 8

9 9 8 9 10 9 8 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 7 7 7 7 9 8 7 9 8 6 8 9 10 8 10 10 8 8 9 10 8 8 10 10 8 10 9 9 9 7 9 10 8 7 10 8 7 10 9 8 8 8 8 7 10 9 8 10 9 10 9 9 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 7

9 8 7 10 8 10 7 9 8 8 10 10 5 9 6 6 6 7 7 8 7 8 10 10 10 10 8 7 5 7 6 9 7 10 9 9 8 7 9 9 9 10 8 9 10 10 6 9 9 9 8 10 10 9 7 9 7 7 9 9 9 10 10 8 9 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 7 6

8 9 9 10 7 10 7 9 8 8 10 10 5 9 6 6 6 7 7 8 7 8 10 10 10 10 8 7 5 7 6 9 6 8 9 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 10 10 9 7 10 8 10 10 8 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 8 10 9 9 9 7 9 10 8 7 10 8 7 10

9 7 6 8 8 10 7 9 8 8 10 10 5 9 6 6 6 7 7 8 7 8 10 10 10 10 8 7 5 7 6 9 7 7 8 7 8 9 9 7 8 7 8 10 10 8 10 10 7 7 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 7 6 7 9 9 9 10 8 9 10 10 6 9 9 9 8 10

113 125 124 132 125 125 122 130 117 124 129 130 111 142 122 132 110 126 135 128 125 141 136 120 122 133 124 116 120 122 109 127 110 127 130 136 132 116 123 140 150 137 145 146 146 146 143 147 146 137 139 139 139 133 126 119 118 128 139 137 133 152 146 171 166 154 160 159 146 155 155 154 139 138

T222 T223 T224 T225 T226 T227 T228 T229 T230 T231 T232 T233 T234 T235 T236 T237 T238 T239 T240 T241 T242 T243 T244 T245 T246 T247 T248 T249 T250 T251 T252 T253 T254 T255 T256 T257 T258 T259 T260 T261 T262 T263 T264 T265 T266 T267 T268 T269 T270 T271 T272 T273 T274 T275 T276 T277 T278 T279 T280 T281 T282 T283 T284 T285 T286 T287 T288 T289 T290 T291 T292 T293 T294 T295

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

20 23 18 20 24 24 21 25 19 20 22 21 25 23 20 24 22 23 25 19 21 24 25 22 20 18 21 23 24 22 19 23 25 20 24 21 25 19 20 23 21 20 25 24 21 22 19 24 23 19 23 24 21 18 25 20 23 21 24 22 24 21 20 25 24 21 23 22 18 20 23 19 24 23

F F F M M M M F F M M M M F F F F M M M M M M M F F F M M M M M F F M M M F M M M M M M F F F F F M M M M M F F M M M M F M M M M M F M M f M F M M

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16 13 15 17 16 19 10 24 12 20 17 15 12 20 24 21 20 15 13 17 21 14 16 12 13 18 10 15 18 16 14 9 12 15 13 10 19 14 16 23 15 25 19 12 24 14 11 23 9 12 16 14 19 22 10 13 16 12 19 13 15 13 17 18 14 8 11 15 13 17 18 14 12 16

139 146 148 134 124 128 150 108 147 126 128 148 149 105 124 133 126 146 145 139 127 147 145 139 148 108 150 144 137 116 146 150 145 133 124 148 144 146 116 98 132 73 130 144 115 143 147 124 150 145 146 143 139 132 144 142 132 138 116 146 141 137 143 116 146 148 145 134 142 123 131 144 146 108

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9 5 11 10 8 7 9 5 9 8 10 11 9 8 7 4 10 9 8 9 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 10 8 8 10 9 8 10 8 8 9 6 8 8 9 8 8 7 7 9 7 6 7 6 9 7 9 8 8 9 9 6 7 9 8 6 10 7 7 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 7 6

14 15 13 12 17 15 17 18 16 16 18 18 15 16 18 17 18 16 12 18 17 16 17 17 18 15 16 18 14 18 17 18 16 16 10 16 18 18 17 18 17 9 15 17 18 15 15 14 13 15 14 14 13 15 13 14 11 14 13 15 15 14 13 15 14 14 13 15 13 14 11 14 13 15

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17 20 18 19 18 18 17 20 18 16 18 18 18 20 18 19 16 18 17 19 16 16 18 18 17 18 18 19 16 17 12 17 18 18 18 17 17 16 18 17 18 20 18 14 16 16 19 20 16 18 18 18 16 18 15 19 16 20 18 17 17 18 19 18 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 20 16 16

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8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 18 18 19 16 16 18 16 19 16 18 15 18 18 16 17 19 18 18 20 16 19 20 11 18 18 16 18 18 17 18 19 20 20 18 17 18 18 20 18 19 18 18 20 17 18 17 18 19 17 16 15 17 18 16 17

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25 28 28 30 27 27 28 26 28 28 29 26 29 27 30 26 28 26 30 27 27 29 28 27 28 21 27 26 29 28 26 9 7 10 10 10 8 9 9 7 7 7 10 7 10 8 8 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9

18 18 19 18 19 16 18 16 18 18 18 16 18 18 17 16 18 17 18 19 16 20 19 18 18 17 19 16 16 18 17 16 19 17 19 16 16 20 16 17 14 11 18 19 16 16 17 18 17 17 19 19 18 18 17 17 16 16 19 17 16 16 18 18 18 18 19 17 16 17 18 16 19 17

17 20 20 19 17 18 19 18 20 19 17 19 18 14 15 17 19 16 19 17 18 20 20 19 19 15 20 18 17 18 16 9 7 10 10 10 8 9 9 7 7 7 10 7 10 8 8 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9

13 15 14 15 13 14 15 14 15 13 15 14 14 6 14 14 10 14 15 13 14 14 13 12 14 11 15 11 12 12 14 14 14 15 14 13 14 14 14 12 11 12 12 13 15 12 15 13 15 14 15 12 14 13 14 15 15 14 14 14 9 7 10 10 10 8 9 9 7 7 7 10 7 10

7 8 10 8 9 8 9 8 8 9 8 9 10 7 7 6 10 9 8 9 8 9 10 7 9 7 9 8 8 8 9 8 10 7 7 9 8 10 8 8 8 5 9 9 8 8 10 7 10 10 8 7 8 8 9 10 9 9 9 9 8 10 8 7 8 10 9 7 6 7 8 9 10 7

8 9 10 8 10 7 10 8 9 9 8 9 9 7 7 8 9 10 8 10 7 10 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 10 7 10 7 6 9 7 7 10 9 6 10 6 10 10 8 10 9 6 7 8 10 12 10 8 10 9 12 10 10 10 6 8 5 8 4 6 7 7 7 8 9 10 7

7 9 9 8 8 8 10 9 9 10 10 8 9 8 6 8 9 10 8 8 8 10 9 8 10 10 7 9 9 9 10 8 9 6 8 8 8 7 10 9 6 10 6 10 10 8 10 9 6 7 8 10 12 10 8 10 9 12 10 10 10 6 8 5 8 4 6 7 7 7 10 8 9 6

7 10 9 8 9 9 9 10 10 8 10 6 7 9 7 9 10 10 8 9 9 8 9 9 8 7 9 10 8 7 10 9 9 7 7 6 9 9 10 8 8 7 8 9 10 8 9 7 9 8 8 10 7 9 10 9 7 6 9 10 9 10 10 9 10 10 9 7 9 8 10 6 9 7

7 10 7 7 7 9 10 7 8 8 7 10 9 8 10 10 8 8 8 8 10 6 8 7 10 8 10 8 5 10 9 7 8 7 9 10 7 9 8 7 8 8 6 8 9 9 10 7 7 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 7 7 7 9 10 7 8 9 10 8 9 6 8 8 8

9 8 8 10 7 9 10 9 7 6 9 10 6 9 10 7 7 7 9 9 10 7 9 9 10 9 8 9 9 8 10 9 9 9 7 10 8 6 7 9 9 9 7 7 9 10 10 9 9 6 9 7 6 9 8 9 9 7 7 8 10 7 9 10 9 7 7 10 9 9 7 7 6 9

148 167 166 162 156 156 171 155 166 158 165 158 161 144 156 150 159 158 163 170 169 176 174 162 173 151 175 159 162 164 173 138 141 137 139 142 135 145 137 136 120 110 130 140 143 136 147 136 139 132 144 143 143 144 144 142 139 147 144 147 137 116 122 118 121 111 119 116 108 113 114 114 122 113

T296 T297 T298 T299 T300 T301 T302 T303 T304 T305 T306 T307 T308 T309 T310 T311 T312 T313 T314 T315 T316 T317 T318 T319 T320 T321 T322 T323 T324 T325 T326 T327 T328 T329 T330 T331 T332 T333 T334 T335 T336 T337 T338 T339 T340 T341 T342 T343 T344 T345 T346 T347 T348 T349 T350 T351 T352 T353 T354 T355 T356 T357 T358 T359 T360 T361 T362 T363 T364 T365 T366 T367 T368 T369

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

25 22 20 21 24 20 23 21 22 19 25 21 24 18 20 21 24 21 23 19 23 21 25 26 20 22 23 25 21 18 23 20 24 18 24 22 23 21 19 22 24 21 25 22 23 25 21 24 21 19 25 20 24 20 24 19 20 21 21 25 20 24 24 22 23 21 23 20 25 24 19 23 25 24

M M F F M M M M M F F F F M M M M M M M M F F M M M M M M M F F M M M M M F M M M F F F F M M M M M M F F M M M F F M M F F M M F M F M M M F F M M

1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1

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12 14 13 17 19 14 17 12 14 12 11 14 13 15 24 17 14 15 12 16 25 20 17 14 16 26 12 15 18 10 12 13 14 15 13 14 14 29 12 23 13 13 14 14 16 24 11 15 17 15 14 23 14 12 16 19 10 14 17 14 18 15 13 14 18 12 19 23 15 14 18 16 19 25

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9 15 13 15 17 18 17 17 17 19 13 17 18 17 17 19 18 19 17 19 15 13 14 11 14 15 15 13 12 7 15 14 13 14 13 14 17 19 19 19 17 18 18 17 18 12 17 17 14 18 16 19 17 19 20 19 17 18 18 18 19 17 20 18 14 12 10 17 14 14 16 15 18 17

10 9 9 8 9 8 11 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 7 8 8 10 7 7 9 9 11 10 8 9 8 9 9 9 8 8 5 7 9 10 11 13 10 10 6 9 7 6 9 8 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 8 10 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 7 6 7 8 9 9 8 9 9 7 7 8

13 10 11 11 14 10 11 11 14 14 13 14 15 14 8 10 8 7 9 8 17 16 18 19 18 18 17 17 15 18 16 16 17 17 17 19 19 16 16 17 17 16 18 18 18 11 17 17 18 16 16 15 15 13 10 14 7 10 11 11 13 14 14 7 14 15 12 14 14 13 11 15 13 13

23 24 23 24 20 19 24 23 23 23 25 22 24 24 24 23 24 24 22 23 23 21 24 20 19 24 18 23 24 18 23 22 23 24 24 23 22 24 24 20 24 24 23 24 21 20 23 20 23 21 22 23 23 24 23 18 24 23 18 23 24 22 21 22 23 24 23 24 24 23 23 22 19 19

25 20 23 22 24 24 23 23 24 22 21 20 22 18 23 21 23 22 18 20 18 20 22 21 22 24 23 24 25 22 20 23 24 23 18 24 23 18 23 24 22 21 22 23 24 23 23 24 25 22 20 22 18 19 24 23 24 23 22 24 23 24 24 23 24 23 24 24 23 23 22 19 19 23

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10 8 8 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 25 22 24 23 23 23 23 22 24 18 22 24 18 22 23 22 20

8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 26 25 27 28 27 27 26 29 28 28 26 26 24 28 26 26 29 28 27 26 28 29 26 29 17 29 24 27 27 29 30 26 28 26 27 26 29 28 28 24 26 27 24 28 29 28 27

17 16 17 18 16 18 17 19 18 19 20 18 18 17 17 15 18 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 16 17 17 17 19 18 18 19 16 16 16 18 19 15 16 17 18 17 16 18 18 18 17 17 17 16 18 11 19 17 19 16 18 17 16 18 16 19 16 16 17 18 17 16 16 17 18 18 17 17

8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 17 19 19 19 17 18 18 17 18 12 17 17 14 18 16 17 17 19 14 15 13 13 17 17 12 16 14 17 18 17 15 17 19 19 20 19 17 13 19 14 17 18 14 19 18 19 16

8 8 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 14 13 14 15 13 15 12 12 7 15 10 15 14 10 13 14 15 12

8 10 9 7 6 7 6 9 8 9 10 9 6 8 9 6 8 9 8 9 8 7 8 9 8 7 10 10 8 7 10 9 8 8 8 8 7 6 6 9 8 9 6 8 10 7 8 9 8 6 8 4 7 9 9 8 8 7 6 9 9 9 9 8 9 9 9 6 8 9 9 10 10 4

8 8 8 7 9 9 7 9 9 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 7 10 8 7 8 10 7 9 10 10 8 9 9 10 7 8 8 8 6 7 9 8 8 10 8 8 9 7 9 7 8 8 8 7 7 8 10 7 8 7 8 10 9 9 9 8 7 10 8 9 7 8 8 9 10 7

8 9 8 7 9 8 7 10 9 10 9 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 10 10 7 8 9 8 8 9 9 9 8 7 9 8 9 10 8 10 9 8 9 7 9 8 10 10 8 8 8 8 10 6 8 10 8 7 8 9 7 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7

7 8 7 8 9 9 7 8 10 10 9 10 9 6 7 6 10 6 9 7 6 9 8 9 9 7 8 8 8 9 10 9 9 10 8 7 7 7 9 7 7 10 9 10 10 9 9 8 6 9 10 7 7 7 9 9 10 7 9 9 6 9 6 8 8 9 7 9 9 7 10 7 9 5

7 10 8 10 10 8 8 10 8 9 9 7 7 7 10 7 7 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 9 8 10 10 7 9 9 9 10 8 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 7 10 10 10 8 9 9 7 7 8 8 8 9 7 8 8 9 8 10 7 10 8

8 10 10 7 7 9 10 7 9 10 8 9 7 9 8 8 10 9 7 6 9 8 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 10 7 9 9 8 7 9 10 8 7 10 9 9 10 10 7 7 9 8 10 10 7 8 8 8 7 8 9 10 8 9 7 9 9 7 8 8 7 9 9 9 8 7 8 8

114 123 118 116 121 118 113 124 122 131 130 115 109 113 121 107 125 121 119 116 115 115 119 119 114 113 121 151 147 148 153 151 144 147 148 144 142 134 140 142 144 148 140 152 156 144 146 144 145 140 148 114 140 137 148 144 156 163 159 178 161 174 163 163 152 177 148 162 167 150 171 171 173 145

T370 T371 T372 T373 T374 T375 T376 T377 T378 T379 T380 T381 T382 T383 T384 T385 T386 T387 T388 T389 T390 T391 T392 T393 T394 T395 T396 T397 T398 T399 T400 T401 T402 T403 T404 T405 T406 T407 T408 T409 T410 T411 T412 T413 T414 T415 T416 T417 T418 T419 T420 T421 T422 T423 T424 T425 T426 T427 T428 T429 T430 T431 T432 T433 T434 T435 T436 T437 T438 T439 T440 T441 T442 T443

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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F M F M M F M F F M M M M M F F M F M M F F M M F F F M F M M M F F M F M M M M F F F M M M F F M M F M M M M F F M M M F F F F F F F M M M M F M M

2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

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13 16 12 15 13 17 10 21 15 13 27 14 11 17 14 19 14 14 17 12 13 15 20 15 11 15 21 16 18 15 10 14 9 13 16 17 13 15 19 14 26 23 12 12 14 14 13 16 15 15 18 24 15 17 29 16 19 15 26 13 16 15 17 13 15 18 19 26 15 18 15 14 17 15

135 136 145 144 147 130 148 124 141 143 75 123 147 134 144 116 142 135 140 146 148 126 108 129 149 133 122 124 130 139 147 143 150 138 136 128 144 133 127 143 100 123 146 145 130 140 139 134 136 137 123 116 139 137 68 136 127 133 77 146 144 139 129 147 143 139 130 87 140 137 142 143 135 134

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9 10 8 6 7 9 8 9 9 8 9 9 9 8 8 8 9 8 8 7 10 11 9 7 7 8 7 8 9 9 7 8 10 8 7 9 10 9 7 6 9 10 9 10 7 9 10 10 9 9 9 8 5 7 7 7 8 9 8 6 8 4 7 9 9 8 8 7 11 9 8 9 8 6

15 6 6 14 13 14 12 10 13 17 11 18 16 13 17 8 17 9 10 16 17 18 18 15 16 18 15 14 14 14 14 15 13 6 12 15 13 14 15 14 13 14 17 13 12 18 17 18 17 14 15 13 7 11 7 15 12 15 11 14 13 14 13 15 13 10 14 12 14 14 15 13 17 16

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9 9 9 9 10 10 8 8 8 9 7 7 8 10 9 9 10 10 8 10 8 8 8 9 9 9 8 7 8 6 10 9 9 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 7 9 9 7 8 9 7 7 6 10 8 10 8 9 10 9 8 7 4 10 9 8 9 9 8 9 8 7 9 7 8 9 8 9

9 9 10 9 10 10 8 7 6 10 5 8 9 10 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 9 8 9 9 10 7 7 8 9 9 10 9 10 9 9 10 10 9 8 7 8 8 9 8 9 9 7 8 10 8 10 8 9 8 10 7 8 8 10 9 8 10 9 8 10 8 7 10 7 9 9 8 10

8 7 9 10 10 7 10 8 10 8 5 10 9 7 8 9 9 10 7 9 10 7 9 8 7 8 8 6 8 9 9 10 7 7 8 10 8 8 7 7 8 8 9 8 10 8 7 10 9 6 10 6 10 10 8 10 9 6 7 8 10 12 10 8 10 9 12 10 10 10 6 8 5 8

9 8 9 8 10 9 10 9 8 9 9 8 10 9 9 7 9 8 9 7 10 8 6 7 9 9 9 7 7 9 10 10 9 9 7 8 9 9 8 8 7 7 9 9 10 6 9 7 9 10 10 8 10 6 6 9 9 7 7 9 7 8 9 8 8 9 10 8 9 9 9 10 8 9

10 7 7 7 7 9 8 7 9 8 6 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 9 10 8 10 10 8 8 9 9 7 7 8 7 9 10 10 10 9 10 9 9 8 9 8 8 8 10 10 8 9 8 6 8 9 10 8 9 9 7 7 7 10 7 7 7 9 10 7 6 8 10 10 8

8 8 8 6 9 7 9 7 10 9 7 7 6 9 8 9 9 7 7 9 9 10 10 9 10 10 6 9 7 7 9 5 9 8 9 8 10 8 10 8 9 9 9 7 7 9 9 8 10 6 7 9 7 9 10 10 8 10 8 9 7 9 8 8 10 7 9 10 9 7 9 8 10 6

164 167 172 165 179 171 172 163 158 170 140 162 176 172 169 163 168 166 165 176 171 168 156 169 176 173 163 161 156 160 173 166 172 170 170 170 173 171 168 170 164 151 172 164 170 166 162 167 163 165 171 162 166 167 149 175 166 159 154 172 168 177 173 164 176 168 164 155 171 152 156 175 174 167

T444 T445 T445 T446 T447 T448 T449 T450 T451 T452 T453 T454 T455 T456 T457 T458 T459 T460 T461 T462 T463 T464 T465 T466 T467 T468 T469 T470 T471 T472 T473 T474 T475 T476 T477 T478 T479 T480 T482 T483 T484 T485 T486 T487 T488 T489 T490 T491 T492 T493 T494 T495 T496 T497 T498 T499 T500 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 T13 T14 T15 T16 T17

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

19 23 22 25 24 26 22 23 25 18 19 20 20 20 26 25 24 24 26 21 20 18 19 21 21 20 22 23 24 25 26 25 24 23 23 23 18 20 20 21 19 20 22 25 24 20 20 26 22 21 18 21 22 25 26 23 24 19 22 20 22 23 21 25 24 18 20 21 21 24 18 24 23 20

M F F M M F F M F M F M F F M F M M M F F F M M M F F F M M M M M F F F M M F M M F F F M M M M F F M M M M F M M F M M M M M M M F F F M M M F F M

1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1

2 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 1 3 3 2

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19 10 13 7 15 18 13 15 12 10 17 13 17 14 17 17 26 21 26 17 14 18 19 13 14 14 13 18 14 14 21 15 19 13 24 11 14 15 12 17 13 17 18 8 16 18 12 25 14 19 13 20 16 13 14 12 20 11 13 16 18 17 20 16 15 17 16 15 14 16 17 13 15 15

130 149 146 151 142 124 147 137 148 145 139 147 139 146 137 136 84 87 78 136 147 143 134 145 146 148 144 138 135 142 116 132 128 145 108 148 144 140 147 143 146 139 133 151 136 128 147 87 142 130 145 108 134 147 143 148 135 133 107 106 96 88 114 104 118 104 93 95 104 103 104 91 110 96

20 20 19 17 13 19 14 17 18 14 19 18 19 16 16 19 17 19 14 12 11 17 18 16 15 14 12 16 14 13 15 15 12 16 15 13 14 15 14 15 13 15 14 14 6 14 14 10 17 18 16 18 20 15 12 19 18 13 13 13 15 16 17 12 14 16 18 16 13 14 13 16 17 14

7 11 10 8 8 8 7 9 9 8 8 10 9 7 8 12 9 10 7 9 8 9 13 7 8 7 5 7 6 9 8 8 6 9 9 6 7 9 8 9 6 8 9 8 9 8 7 8 9 8 7 9 12 7 5 11 10 10 9 9 10 9 6 10 6 10 10 8 10 9 7 7 8 10

18 18 16 15 14 18 12 15 18 13 14 16 17 15 18 14 14 14 13 14 11 12 6 14 15 12 12 15 12 14 12 14 13 15 15 13 10 11 11 14 15 12 14 14 14 12 17 7 18 16 18 17 18 10 11 14 17 18 8 11 12 11 5 7 8 7 6 9 7 14 13 15 12 14

20 23 22 22 22 18 23 21 24 23 26 23 26 24 22 24 24 23 24 22 22 22 24 14 24 20 22 18 19 24 23 24 23 22 23 24 23 24 21 22 23 24 24 23 22 24 24 20 24 24 23 26 24 19 11 25 23 19 19 23 23 25 18 20 18 20 22 20 25 23 24 24 22 21

23 24 22 21 20 22 24 16 23 21 21 24 22 23 23 23 24 24 22 23 19 23 24 23 24 23 24 20 19 24 25 24 22 24 18 23 24 18 23 22 23 24 24 23 22 24 24 20 24 24 21 25 24 17 14 24 23 19 23 23 23 21 20 24 24 18 23 24 23 24 22 22 23 24

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23 24 18 21 20 23 23 20 22 18 23 24 22 24 24 23 24 22 22 22 24 24 25 22 22 24 24 16 23 21 21 24 22 23 23 21 20 18 20 19 18 20 18 20 20 20 19 21 19 19 23 23 25 18 20 18 20 23 23 21 20 18 20 19 18 20 18 20 20 20 19 21 19 19

17 16 15 17 18 20 19 16 18 19 19 17 17 20 19 15 17 19 16 18 18 17 19 18 16 16 14 19 16 17 18 17 19 17 19 17 17 18 18 14 15 12 15 14 13 14 15 14 13 15 14 15 13 19 17 14 16 17 19 17 17 18 18 14 15 12 15 14 13 14 15 14 13 15

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17 18 18 19 18 16 13 14 19 17 18 15 14 19 17 19 19 16 19 18 18 16 18 19 19 19 19 17 19 17 19 16 18 18 17 17 20 14 15 15 12 14 14 14 15 14 13 14 18 17 16 18 16 19 16 16 17 19 20 20 18 17 18 15 15 17 17 15 17 18 17 19 17 19

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27 28 30 28 28 26 27 29 28 28 29 28 29 30 28 26 25 21 21 26 27 27 27 28 29 28 28 28 26 28 23 29 26 28 26 28 29 29 28 27 29 27 28 30 27 26 28 20 29 26 29 27 28 26 26 28 29 26 28 26 17 28 27 26 29 28 25 28 26 25 27 27 27 28

19 20 18 18 18 17 19 16 17 18 19 17 18 20 18 17 17 17 17 16 19 19 16 19 18 18 18 18 17 18 16 19 18 18 16 18 19 16 18 18 18 19 17 20 16 16 18 17 19 16 18 10 17 16 17 18 19 16 17 14 11 18 19 16 16 17 18 17 17 19 19 19 16 19

17 20 19 20 18 16 20 17 19 19 16 19 17 19 19 18 17 15 15 17 20 17 18 20 17 19 18 18 16 19 14 17 19 19 17 19 16 17 20 19 18 17 17 20 18 18 19 16 17 17 20 13 13 18 19 19 16 18 17 20 11 19 17 18 17 19 17 19 17 19 20 17 18 20

13 14 15 15 13 11 14 12 15 14 12 14 13 15 15 13 10 11 11 14 14 13 14 15 14 13 15 14 13 13 11 12 14 15 14 14 12 12 15 13 14 13 12 15 14 13 15 5 13 15 13 8 10 15 13 14 12 14 12 11 12 12 13 15 12 15 13 15 14 15 14 13 14 15

9 9 8 8 8 9 9 8 10 9 7 9 8 8 9 9 6 7 7 6 9 9 8 10 8 10 8 8 9 9 10 7 8 9 6 9 7 8 8 7 9 9 8 10 8 8 9 7 9 6 10 7 7 10 8 9 7 8 8 8 5 9 9 8 8 10 7 10 10 8 9 9 8 10

10 9 8 9 8 9 9 8 10 9 7 9 8 8 9 9 6 9 9 8 9 10 7 10 8 9 8 8 9 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 7 8 9 9 9 10 9 10 7 8 10 4 10 9 10 9 10 10 8 10 7 10 9 6 10 6 10 10 8 10 9 6 7 8 10 12 10 8

4 6 7 7 7 8 7 9 7 10 8 10 10 9 7 10 8 10 10 8 10 8 8 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 10 7 7 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 10 8 7 10 8 9 10 7 9 9 10 7 10 10 8 10 7 10 9 6 10 6 10 10 8 10 9 6 7 8 10 12 10 8

9 10 8 10 7 9 9 8 9 8 7 8 10 10 8 10 10 7 7 9 10 9 9 9 10 10 7 7 9 8 10 10 7 8 9 8 7 8 10 9 10 9 8 10 9 10 9 9 9 9 9 8 9 10 9 8 7 10 8 8 7 8 9 10 8 9 7 9 8 8 10 9 9 9

9 6 8 9 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 10 10 8 8 9 10 8 8 10 10 8 10 9 8 7 9 10 10 10 9 10 9 9 7 10 7 10 7 7 7 9 10 7 8 9 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 9 10 8 10 9 8 10 10 9 10 7 10 10 10 10 10 9 8 10 8

9 7 7 8 7 8 9 9 7 10 9 10 10 6 9 7 10 9 9 8 7 9 9 9 9 8 9 8 10 8 10 8 9 9 8 10 9 8 8 10 7 9 10 9 7 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 7 6 10 8 7 8 7 6 10 7 9 8 8 10 10 5 9 6 6 6 7 7

167 170 171 176 160 159 174 165 169 173 163 175 174 170 169 164 157 151 151 160 177 170 168 177 172 173 167 166 166 170 158 167 165 172 157 173 162 166 176 164 174 171 169 186 164 162 179 131 171 162 180 143 160 168 164 171 160 166 167 149 127 161 173 167 162 178 164 165 162 169 176 173 171 171

T18 T19 T20 T21 T22 T23 T24 T25 T26 T27 T28 T29 T30 T31 T32 T 33 T34 T35 T36 T37 T38 T39 T40 T41 T42 T43 T44 T45 T46 T47 T48 T49 T50 T51 T52 T53 T54 T55 T56 T57 T58 T59 T60 T61 T62 T63 T64 T65 T66 T67 T68 T69 T70 T71 T72 T73 T74 T75 T76 T77 T78 T79 T80 T81 T82 T83 T84 T85 T86 T87 T88 T89 T90 T91

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

19 22 20 23 21 24 25 22 22 25 24 19 18 20 24 21 19 18 26 24 25 19 18 18 18 27 24 22 20 19 18 23 21 20 24 25 24 19 18 25 19 22 21 23 22 21 20 18 24 24 22 20 19 18 23 18 26 24 24 25 19 21 20 23 21 21 18 25 23 22 18 25 21 21

M F F M M M M F F F M M M M F F F F F F M M M M M F M M M M M F F F M M F M M F F F F F F F M M M F F M M M M M M F F M M M F F M M M F M M M M F F

1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2

2 3 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 1 2 4 2 2 1 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 4 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 3 2 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 4 3 3 1 4 3 3

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17 15 18 19 16 14 18 13 17 19 15 17 19 12 13 15 15 16 20 16 16 23 17 13 15 15 16 17 13 18 14 17 14 16 26 13 16 16 15 15 17 19 14 16 15 19 20 17 12 15 17 13 16 17 16 19 14 16 14 16 15 19 17 13 19 17 15 15 16 16 17 20 23 18

87 92 98 102 111 115 116 94 115 102 101 93 114 109 91 102 108 95 108 108 114 118 109 98 107 114 111 113 100 92 98 97 94 91 118 102 92 96 88 107 119 89 96 114 113 90 100 90 94 116 88 106 104 100 101 107 113 101 109 114 97 106 107 101 103 96 102 102 90 97 88 98 117 100

13 12 18 15 15 16 19 16 18 18 18 19 17 20 16 16 18 18 19 17 20 18 14 12 10 17 14 14 16 15 18 17 16 13 14 9 12 16 16 12 7 13 16 14 19 17 19 18 19 17 19 15 13 14 11 14 15 15 13 12 7 15 14 16 14 19 17 19 17 19 20 19 12 17

7 8 9 6 9 9 9 6 7 9 8 6 10 7 7 9 7 9 9 7 7 6 7 8 9 9 8 9 9 7 7 8 9 7 9 5 11 13 9 8 3 7 9 3 6 8 8 8 10 7 7 9 9 11 10 8 9 8 9 9 9 8 8 9 3 6 8 5 4 7 7 6 9 9

13 14 15 15 12 14 11 14 13 15 15 14 13 15 14 14 11 11 13 14 14 7 14 15 12 14 14 13 11 15 13 13 15 18 17 16 14 16 17 19 18 18 17 14 16 17 10 8 7 9 8 17 16 18 19 18 18 17 17 15 18 16 16 17 14 16 17 18 15 15 14 14 14 7

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22 24 24 21 25 23 22 22 22 18 23 21 24 23 22 23 21 20 22 18 23 21 23 22 18 20 18 20 22 21 14 19 16 17 18 17 19 17 10 15 13 14 14 17 20 17 24 22 22 21 24 22 23 23 23 24 24 22 23 23 23 24 24 21 25 22 24 24 24 20 24 23 24 23

17 18 19 15 19 17 18 17 17 17 12 16 14 17 18 17 17 19 16 18 17 16 17 18 16 14 19 16 17 18 15 20 19 18 20 17 17 18 20 20 17 19 20 20 16 20 18 16 17 16 16 16 17 16 16 16 19 13 20 19 17 18 15 17 19 16 18 18 17 19 18 16 18 17

23 23 25 18 20 23 24 24 23 23 22 21 20 24 24 18 20 21 21 21 22 23 24 24 23 25 22 21 24 23 18 17 16 25 26 23 24 26 21 17 19 19 17 26 25 26 19 24 23 19 23 23 22 22 24 21 25 23 22 24 24 23 24 18 23 24 24 25 22 22 24 25 18 20

14 15 13 19 17 14 17 18 18 19 17 19 16 18 18 17 17 20 19 15 17 19 16 16 17 18 18 17 17 17 18 19 18 17 16 20 20 18 19 12 18 17 15 19 20 18 18 18 17 20 20 17 18 15 18 17 19 16 20 19 18 19 12 12 15 15 14 19 20 19 16 19 18 19

14 19 18 18 17 19 18 20 16 17 12 17 18 18 18 17 17 16 18 17 18 20 17 16 18 18 19 18 18 18 17 17 18 19 15 14 17 12 19 17 15 14 19 20 16 20 19 18 16 13 17 19 17 19 19 16 19 18 19 17 19 20 17 18 20 16 20 18 19 20 18 16 20 13

23 22 24 23 24 25 19 26 22 21 23 23 24 22 24 18 19 22 23 24 25 20 19 18 20 18 20 20 20 19 21 24 25 20 21 23 23 25 23 26 20 21 25 24 26 25 18 20 20 20 19 21 16 13 15 14 26 23 24 22 22 23 24 25 22 22 24 24 22 20 24 23 24 18

19 17 18 17 18 18 17 17 13 18 20 17 18 15 18 17 19 16 20 19 19 18 16 18 17 19 16 16 18 19 18 16 17 16 16 12 19 20 19 18 18 17 17 13 18 20 19 19 19 18 20 20 18 17 18 18 20 15 18 18 16 17 20 17 12 19 20 12 16 14 17 18 17 15

23 23 23 24 25 18 22 24 24 23 22 23 20 23 23 21 18 23 21 23 22 24 22 23 23 24 24 23 24 24 24 25 22 22 24 24 16 23 24 20 21 21 21 22 21 28 24 23 23 22 23 24 24 22 23 23 23 24 25 18 26 25 23 23 24 23 23 23 23 24 24 20 24 23

18 18 17 19 19 18 17 17 19 18 14 16 17 19 18 16 13 17 19 17 19 19 16 19 18 19 20 17 18 18 18 17 17 18 19 18 18 16 18 20 18 17 18 14 19 20 18 19 18 18 17 17 16 17 18 18 17 19 19 18 21 19 16 18 16 17 19 16 18 19 17 16 18 19

17 19 14 17 20 18 19 20 20 11 18 18 16 18 18 17 18 19 20 20 18 20 18 19 16 13 14 16 17 19 18 16 13 14 19 17 18 15 14 15 16 17 18 17 16 18 18 18 17 17 17 16 16 13 14 19 17 18 15 14 18 18 18 20 17 18 18 17 20 18 14 16 19 18

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23 24 28 26 28 26 26 27 24 27 24 25 24 28 26 27 26 25 23 24 24 26 27 28 27 28 27 27 28 25 26 24 27 27 25 27 27 21 24 27 26 29 28 26 27 28 29 28 28 28 26 28 24 27 27 25 27 27 21 24 25 23 26 28 26 28 27 28 26 27 28 19 26 26

17 18 15 15 17 18 16 20 18 18 16 18 17 18 20 16 18 16 17 18 12 17 18 18 17 17 18 19 18 18 16 18 16 18 18 18 20 18 14 18 17 18 17 19 17 18 17 18 18 17 15 18 20 19 18 18 19 18 16 18 17 18 20 18 17 16 18 18 19 18 18 17 16 16

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29 28 28 28 26 28 23 29 26 28 26 28 29 29 28 27 28 26 29 24 22 29 26 27 24 29 27 30 27 27 21 24 26 27 24 28 29 28 27 28 29 28 29 26 29 26 22 27 27 25 27 28 27 30 27 28 30 27 26 28 29 26 29 27 30 26 28 26 30 27 27 29 26 27

18 18 18 18 17 18 16 19 18 18 16 18 19 16 18 18 18 18 17 17 15 18 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 16 17 17 16 16 17 18 18 17 17 18 19 18 18 17 18 16 17 19 16 18 19 17 16 18 19 18 18 19 16 18 18 16 18 18 17 16 18 17 18 19 16 19 16 18

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14 13 15 14 13 13 11 12 14 15 14 14 12 12 15 13 10 14 7 10 11 11 13 14 14 7 6 15 13 14 11 10 15 14 10 13 14 15 12 15 14 13 14 14 12 14 11 13 14 13 12 15 15 15 13 12 15 13 12 13 15 14 14 6 14 14 10 14 15 13 14 13 15 13

8 10 8 8 9 9 10 7 8 9 6 9 7 8 8 7 9 6 8 9 6 8 9 8 9 8 7 8 9 8 7 9 6 8 9 9 10 10 4 9 9 9 8 10 8 9 10 9 8 7 4 10 9 8 9 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 10 7 7 6 10 9 8 9 8 9 6 7

10 9 12 10 10 10 6 8 5 8 4 6 7 7 7 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 7 10 8 7 8 10 7 9 8 9 7 8 8 9 10 7 9 10 9 8 10 8 9 8 10 7 8 8 10 9 8 10 9 8 10 8 9 8 9 9 7 7 8 9 10 8 10 7 10 9 9

10 9 12 10 10 10 6 8 5 8 4 6 7 7 7 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 8 8 8 8 10 8 9 8 8 8 9 7 7 7 9 10 10 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 10 8 8 9 10 10 8 9 8 6 8 9 10 8 8 8 9 9 8

10 10 7 7 9 8 10 10 7 8 9 8 7 8 10 9 10 9 6 7 6 10 6 9 7 6 9 8 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 10 7 9 5 8 9 8 10 8 10 6 6 9 9 7 7 9 7 8 9 8 8 9 10 8 10 6 7 9 7 9 10 10 8 9 9 9 9 9

9 8 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 7 7 7 7 9 8 9 7 8 7 10 7 7 9 10 7 8 7 9 10 10 9 9 10 9 9 8 10 9 8 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 9 9 8 9 10 9 10 9 10 9 10 8 9 9 8 9 10 9 8 10 10 9 9 9 8 9

8 7 8 10 10 10 10 8 7 5 7 6 9 8 8 6 9 9 8 7 7 10 10 7 9 10 9 7 8 10 8 10 10 8 10 9 10 8 9 10 7 8 8 10 10 8 9 9 10 10 7 8 10 7 8 9 10 10 8 9 8 10 8 9 8 9 9 8 9 9 9 9 9 7

174 173 171 171 169 172 151 169 160 165 151 158 161 160 172 162 167 158 151 148 136 172 164 163 164 156 153 172 168 168 152 153 164 166 153 171 176 171 148 171 172 170 172 168 172 164 148 170 168 160 152 172 172 173 171 169 177 172 161 169 173 167 173 155 163 160 172 172 176 171 167 174 162 163

T92 T93 T94 T95 T96 T97 T98 T99 T100 T101 T102 T103 T104 T105 T106 T107 T108 T109 T110 T111 T112 T113 T114 T115 T116 T117 T118 T119 T120 T121 T122 T123 T124 T125 T126 T127 T128 T129 T130 T131 T132 T133 T134 T135 T136 T137 T138 T139 T140 T141 T142 T143 T144 T145 T146 T147 T148 T149 T150 T151 T152 T153 T154 T155 T156 T157 T158 T159 T160 T161 T162 T163 T164 T165

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

21 22 24 21 26 25 20 18 21 23 25 21 24 19 23 21 25 21 18 23 21 19 19 22 26 21 22 20 24 19 22 21 24 25 19 24 20 25 21 22 25 24 20 22 23 19 21 26 24 21 23 20 24 25 21 20 23 19 24 22 21 24 22 26 19 25 20 23 25 22 24 18 20 24

F M F F F M M M F M M M M F M M F F F M M M F M M M M M F F M M M M M M F M F M F M M F M M F M M F M M M M F M F M F F M M M M M F M M M F M M M F

2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2

3 2 4 3 4 4 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 1 3 3 2 2 3 4 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 3 3 2 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 3 2 4 3 3 3 3 4 2 4 2 3 4 3 4 1 2 3

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14 17 15 15 15 22 21 20 12 14 13 10 12 15 14 15 15 18 15 12 14 15 16 14 12 14 17 11 14 17 19 14 14 21 17 16 12 13 17 16 14 26 21 16 13 19 13 16 12 15 17 12 11 9 16 17 13 18 11 17 14 13 12 19 16 15 18 23 15 16 18 16 14 15

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9 8 7 7 7 7 7 9 8 7 9 10 8 9 10 7 9 9 10 8 10 10 9 7 10 8 10 10 8 8 10 10 8 10 8 8 9 10 10 8 9 8 8 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 7 9 8 7 10 8 8 9 9 10 7 7 7 9 10 7 8 8 7 10 8 10 10 8

7 9 8 8 8 6 9 7 9 7 7 10 9 10 9 9 9 9 8 7 8 10 10 8 10 10 7 7 9 10 7 7 9 10 9 9 9 8 10 6 6 9 9 7 7 9 7 8 9 10 9 6 7 6 10 6 9 7 6 8 8 10 7 9 10 9 7 6 9 10 9 10 10 9

8 7 10 9 6 8 10 10 8 10 7 9 9 7 10 7 8 10 9 8 8 9 9 8 8 7 7 8 8 8 10 9 9 9 10 8 9 8 8 9 8 10 8 8 8 8 8 9 7 8 8 10 7 7 9 9 9 8 9 10 9 8 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 7 7 7 7 9

9 8 8 9 7 9 8 10 6 9 9 10 8 8 8 8 9 8 10 7 7 8 10 9 9 7 9 9 9 9 10 10 6 10 8 9 10 9 9 9 9 8 7 7 9 9 7 8 8 7 9 9 9 7 10 9 8 7 10 8 9 9 8 7 8 8 8 6 9 8 8 6 9 7

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T166 T167 T168 T169 T170 T171 T172 T173 T174 T175 T176 T177 T178 T179 T180 T181 T182 T183 T184 T185 T186 T187 T188 T189 T190 T191 T192 T193 T194 T195 T196 T197 T198 T199 T200 T201 T202 T203 T204 T205 T206 T207 T208 T209 T210 T211 T212 T213 T214 T215 T216 T217 T218 T219 T220 T221 T222 T223 T224 T225 T226 T227 T228 T229 T230 T231 T232 T233 T234 T235 T236 T237 T238 T239

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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M M M F M M M F F M M M F F F F M M M M M F M M M M M M M F F M M M M M M F F F M M M M M F M M M F M M M M M M F F F M M M M F F M M M M F F F F M

1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1

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99 102 104 104 104 112 105 111 116 94 98 97 109 111 95 104 101 110 91 105 92 91 90 102 114 110 108 103 105 117 112 108 102 101 91 94 91 117 103 103 105 92 105 118 94 102 90 99 99 95 95 109 105 106 105 107 110 117 94 99 107 110 98 110 114 116 102 103 108 112 100 104 102 96

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6 9 8 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 8 10 9 8 9 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 10 8 8 10 9 13 10 10 6 9 7 6 9 8 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 8 10 9 9 7 11 9 7 7 9 9 7 7 6 9 5 9 4 7 8 10 13 10 9 8 9 9 10 9 7 8

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8 9 10 7 10 8 9 8 8 9 10 10 9 10 7 8 8 8 7 9 9 7 9 7 9 8 8 9 9 6 9 9 8 9 8 11 11 14 11 10 10 14 14 10 14 15 13 14 14 13 12 14 11 15 11 12 12 14 14 14 15 14 13 14 14 14 12 11 12 12 13 7 7 8

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10 10 9 9 9 10 10 7 7 9 8 10 6 9 7 7 8 7 8 9 9 7 8 7 8 10 10 8 10 10 7 7 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 7 6 7 9 9 9 10 8 9 10 10 6 9 9 9 8 10 9 8 8 10 7 9 10 9 7 6 9 10 6 9 10 7 7 7

8 7 9 8 6 8 9 10 8 10 10 8 8 9 10 8 8 10 10 8 10 9 9 9 7 9 10 8 7 10 8 7 10 9 8 8 8 8 7 10 9 8 10 9 10 9 9 8 9 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 9 9 8 8 8 10 9 9 10 10 8 9 8 6 8 9 10 8

9 7 10 9 7 9 10 10 9 10 10 6 9 7 10 9 9 8 7 9 9 9 10 8 9 10 10 6 9 9 9 8 10 10 9 7 9 7 7 9 9 9 10 10 8 9 9 9 7 7 9 9 7 7 6 7 10 9 8 9 9 9 10 10 8 10 6 7 9 7 9 10 10 8

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T240 T241 T242 T243 T244 T245 T246 T247 T248 T249 T250 T251 T252 T253 T254 T255 T256 T257 T258 T259 T260 T261 T262 T263 T264 T265 T266 T267 T268 T269 T270 T271 T272 T273 T274 T275 T276 T277 T278 T279 T280 T281 T282 T283 T284 T285 T286 T287 T288 T289 T290 T291 T292 T293 T294 T295 T296 T297 T298 T299 T300 T301 T302 T303 T304 T305 T306 T307 T308 T309 T310 T311 T312 T313

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

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M M M M M M F F F M M M M M F F M M M F M M M M M M F F F F F M M M M M F F M M M M F M M M M M F M M ] M F M M M M F F M M M M M F F F F M M M M M

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4 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 3 3 4 3 2 3 4 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 2 4 4 3 3 2 4 3 2 3 4 3 1 4 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 4 3 4 3 2 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 1 2 3 4 3

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M M M F F M M M M M M M F F M M M M M F M M M F F F F M M M M M M F F M M M F F M M F F M M F M F M M M F F M M F M F M M F M F F M M M M M F F M F

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T461 T462 T463 T464 T465 T466 T467 T468 T469 T470 T471 T472 T473 T474 T475 T476 T477 T478 T479 T480 T482 T483 T484 T485 T486 T487 T488 T489 T490 T491 T492 T493 T494 T495 T496 T497 T498 T499 T500

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

26 21 20 18 19 21 21 20 22 23 24 25 26 25 24 23 23 23 18 20 20 21 19 20 22 25 24 20 20 26 22 21 18 21 22 25 26 23 24

M F F F M M M F F F M M M M M F F F M M F M M F F F M M M M F F M M M M F M M

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19 19 19 17 18 18 17 18 12 17 16 18 16 14 16 17 20 20 19 17 18 19 18 17 14 14 12 16 10 12 13 15 13 17 8 10 13 15 17

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24 18 19 21 24 21 24 25 20 21 23 23 24 20 23 23 23 21 22 24 26 26 25 20 20 21 24 17 26 16 23 24 22 26 22 21 23 23 24

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23 22 23 20 23 22 21 22 23 24 24 25 18 22 24 24 23 21 25 22 24 24 24 22 23 24 24 23 24 23 24 24 23 23 23 18 24 23 18

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24 16 13 23 24 25 22 21 24 20 24 18 23 24 24 22 21 20 22 18 23 21 23 22 24 22 23 22 21 23 23 24 22 24 18 19 24 19 24

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8 8 5 7 9 10 9 9 9 9 8 10 9 9 9 6 9 9 10 10 8 7 8 8 9 10 9 6 7 8 7 8 6 7 9 6 9 9 7

7 6 9 7 9 9 9 9 10 9 8 10 9 10 10 9 9 9 10 10 8 7 7 8 10 10 9 9 9 8 6 7 8 7 8 8 9 10 7

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166 159 123 154 177 183 165 168 173 169 173 169 173 177 175 162 167 165 172 168 169 169 164 166 174 172 171 164 165 164 161 168 157 165 153 139 176 168 157

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University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - Bureau of Police Research and

PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN RAJASTHAN POLICE (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TRAINEE CONSTABLES) A THESIS Submitted to The UNIVERSIT...

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