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Root Cause Analysis

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Root Cause Analysis

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Root Cause Analysis • Root Cause Analysis is a method that is used to address a problem or non-conformance, in order to get to the “root cause” of the problem. It is used so we can correct or eliminate the cause, and prevent the problem from recurring. • Traditional applications of Root Cause Analysis – Resolution of customer complaints and returns. – Disposition of non-conforming material (Scrap and Repair) via the Material Review process. – Corrective action plans resulting from internal and customer audits.

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Objective • Through this training course, you will: – Understand the meaning of “Root Cause” – Know the steps used to identify the root cause of problems.

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What is Root Cause? • Root Cause is the fundamental breakdown or failure of a process which, when resolved, prevents a recurrence of the problem. Or, in other words

• For a particular product problem, Root Cause is the factor that, when you fix it, the problem goes away and doesn’t come back. • Root Cause Analysis is a systematic approach to get to the true root causes of our process problems.

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Philosophy of Root Cause Analysis • Each problem is an opportunity (“golden nugget”) because it can tell a story about why and how it occurred. • It is critical that everyone take a personal and active role in improving quality. • The “true” problem must be understood before action is taken. – Problems are often masked for a variety of reasons

• To do this well, we must be – Both focused and open-minded – Both patient and quick – Above all, we must be relentless 5

We Perform Root Cause Analysis to Prevent Turnbacks and Customer Escapes from Recurring Defects found at:

Own Next Process Process Step Step

Later Process Step

Before Reaching Customer

Found By Customer

$1 Very Minor

$100 Rework

$1,000 Significant Rework

$10,000 Warranty Cost

Cost:

Impact:

$10 Minor Delay

Reschedule Delay in of Work Delivery Additional Inspection

Admin. Cost Reputation Loss of Market Share 6

Symptom Approach vs. Root Cause • If we do a poor job of identifying the root causes of our problems, we will waste time and resources putting bandaids on the symptoms of the problem.

Symptom Approach

Root Cause

• “Errors are often a result of worker carelessness.”

• “Errors are the result of defects in the system. People are only part of the process.” • “We need to find out why this is happening, and implement mistakeproofs so it won’t happen again.” • “This is critical. We need to fix it for good, or it will come back and burn us.”

• “We need to train and motivate workers to be more careful.” • “We don’t have the time or resources to really get to the bottom of this problem.”

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How do we do Root Cause Analysis? • Said simply, Root Cause Analysis is asking why the problem occurred, and then continuing to ask why that happened until we reach the fundamental process element that failed.

Why???

• The following example illustrates the basics of Root Cause Analysis.

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Fishbone Diagram - A Useful Tool • Using a fishbone diagram while brainstorming possible causes helps you to focus on the various possibilities. Some useful categories: Materials

People

Instructions

Environment

Problem

Machines

PM

Measuring/Test Equip.

Design

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Example: The Washing Machine Problem ProblemDescription Description “Machine “Machineisis22weeks weeksold old (Serial (Serial#2345017). #2345017). When When doing doingthe thefourth fourthload loadof of clothes, clothes,IIheard heardaaloud loudnoise noise and andthe themachine machinestopped! stopped! ItIt wouldn’t wouldn’tre-start.” re-start.”

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Verify the Complaint Problem ProblemVerification Verification Service Servicetechnician technicianchecks checks washing washingmachine machineoperation operation to totest testprocedure procedure(#8496). (#8496). The Themachine machinedoes doesnot not operate. operate.

?? Y Y H W WHDetermine

Determine the theCause. Cause. 11

Investigate Why Power Off?

Machine Unplugged?

Machine Machine Doesn’t Doesn’t Work Work Fuse Missing?

Fuse Blown

Fuse Blown?

?? Y Y H W WHDetermine

Determine the theCause. Cause. 12

Investigate Why Electrical Overload?

Motor Overheated?

Fuse Fuse Blown Blown Lightning Storm?

Motor Overheated

Power Surge?

Corrective CorrectiveAction Actionfor for Specific SpecificDeficiency: Deficiency: Replace Replacethe theFuse Fuse

? ? Y Y H W WH Determine

Determine the theCause. Cause. 13

Investigate Why Cooling Fan?

Fly-Wheel Loose?

Motor Motor Overheated Overheated Shaft Damaged?

Motor Mis-Installed?

Shaft Damaged

?? Y Y H W WHDetermine

Determine the theCause. Cause. 14

Investigate Why Wrong Belt?

Bearing Destroyed?

Shaft Shaft Damaged Damaged

Mis-Handled? Mis-Installed?

Bearing Destroyed

Incorrect Tolerance/Fit?

? ? Y Y H W WHDetermine

Determine the theCause. Cause. 15

Investigate Why Bearing Loads?

Bad Bearings?

Bearing Bearing Destroyed Destroyed Wrong Bearings?

Seal Omitted?

Corrective CorrectiveAction Actionfor for Specific SpecificDeficiency: Deficiency:

Cause of Failure: Seal Omitted

Loss of Lube

Replace Replacethe theMotor Motor

? ? Y Y H W WHWas Seal

Was Seal Omitted?? Omitted?? 16

Root Cause of our Example? Parts Shortage

Inadequate Work Instructions?

Seal Seal Omitted Omitted

Fell Out? Operator Error?

Missed Operation?

Root Root Cause Cause -Inadequate Inadequate Work Work Instructions Instructions

But..... is it?

Inadequate

Appropriate 17

Root Cause of our Example? Parts Shortage

Inadequate Work Instructions?

Seal Seal Omitted Omitted

Fell Out? Operator Error?

Missed Operation?

Root Root Cause Cause -Inadequate Inadequate Work Work Instructions Instructions Appropriate

But.....

Inadequate

is it?

Can the design be changed to eliminate the need for a seal? Can the design be changed to make it impossible to omit the seal? Can a fixture be made to make it impossible to omit the seal? 18

Tools Used in Root Cause Analysis Y

X BRAINSTORMING

START

PARETO CHART

FISHBONE DIAGRAM

SCATTER DIAGRAM

VALUE LSL

USL UCL X

N

?

LCL

TIME Y

RUN CHART

CONTROL CHARTS

HISTOGRAM

8

6

+

4

2

7

5

STOP FACTOR A

FLOWCHART

FACTOR C

TREE DIAGRAM -

+

3

1 -

FACTOR B

-

+

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS

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Brainstorming WHAT IS IT? Brainstorming is a process in which a group quickly generates as many ideas as it can on a particular problem and/or subject.

WHY IS IT USEFUL? Brainstorming is useful because it can help a group of people ut ilize its collective brainpower to generate many ideas in a short period of time. It stimulates creativity and promotes involvement and participation.

WHEN IS IT USED? To help clarify mutual expectations and devise ground rules rela ted to a team’s way of operating.

HOW IS IT DONE? •Identify a topic, problem or issue and make sure there is mutual understanding of the task and objective. Write the topic on a flip chart. •Each person presents one idea going in sequence (Round Robin). If a person doesn’t have an idea, pass and move on to the next person. •All ideas are recorded on a flipchart. •There is no evaluation or discussion during the session. •Focus is on quantity of ideas, not the quality. •When all ideas are exhausted, take a break. When you come back, people may have more ideas to add to the list. •Keep the idea generation separate from the evaluation or analysis of ideas.

BRAINSTORMING GUIDELINES: •Generate as many ideas as possible. •Encourage free-wheeling. •No criticism is allowed, either positive or negative. •Equal opportunity to participate. •Record all ideas. •Let the ideas incubate. During analysis ideas should be evaluated, further analyzed and refined prior to taking further action.

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Fishbone Diagram WHAT IS IT? The Fishbone Diagram (also known as the Cause & Effect Diagram) is a technique to graphically identify and organize many possible causes of a problem (effect).

WHY IS IT USEFUL? Fishbone Diagrams help identify the most likely ROOT CAUSES of a problem. They can also help teach a team to reach a common understanding of the problem. This tool can help focus problem solving and reduce subjective decision making.

WHEN IS IT USED? When the need exists to display and explore many possible causes of a specific problem or condition. This diagram allows the team to systematically analyze cause & effect relationships. It can also help with the identification of ROOT CAUSES.

WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE? BOWLING PROCESS INPUTS PEOPLE

METHODS

ATTITUDE

MEASUREMENT

CURVE OR STRAIGHT BALL USE WRIST BAND? LENGTH OF ARMSWING

ALCOHOL INTAKE AMOUNT OF BALL LIFT HOW MANY ON TEAM? - PACE EVERYONE SHOW UP?

USE OF ALLEY ARROWS

SCOREKEEPER - MANUAL OR AUTO

# OF STEPS ON APPROACH

AMOUNT OF PRACTICE

USE RAG TO WIPE OFF BALL

TYPE OF WRIST BAND

PROBLEM: ACHIEVE HIGHER BOWLING SCORES

TEMPERATURE

AUTO PINSETTER SHOES USED

BALL WEIGHT

LANE OIL BALL CLEANER

MACHINES

BALL MATERIAL

RAG CLEAN

MATERIALS

NOISE FROM OTHER BOWLERS TIME OF YEAR HUMIDITY

ENVIRONMENT

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Fishbone Diagram (cont.) HOW IS IT DONE? •Name the effect; determine the specific problem to be analyzed. Draw the diagram with a process arrow to the effect and draw a box around it. •Decide what the major categories of the causes are (i.e., people, machines, measurement, materials, methods, environment, policies, etc.). •Label categories important to your situation. Make it work for you. •Brainstorm all possible causes and label each cause under the appropriate category. •Post the diagram where others can add causes to it (i.e., experts, affected people, process owners, etc..). •Analyze causes and eliminate trivial and/or frivolous ideas. •Rank causes and circle the most likely ones for further consideration and study. •Investigate the circled causes. Use other techniques to gather data and prioritize findings.

GUIDELINES •Try not to go beyond the span of control of the group. •Promote participation by everyone concerned. •Keep chart up to date so it can be used throughout the improveme nt cycle.

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PEOPLE

MACHINES

MEASUREMENT

Questions to Ask When Performing RCA PROBLEM

• PEOPLE – – – – – – – – – –

Was the document properly interpreted? Was the information properly disseminated? Did the recipient understand the information? Was the proper training to perform the task administered to the person? Was too much judgment required to perform the task? Were guidelines for judgment available? Did the environment influence the actions of the individual? Are there distractions in the workplace? Is fatigue a mitigating factor? How much experience does the individual have in performing this task?

MATERIAL

METHODS

ENVIRONMENT

• MACHINES – – – – – – – – –

Was the correct tool used? Is the equipment affected by the environment? Is the equipment being properly maintained (i.e., daily/weekly/monthly preventative maintenance schedule) Was the machine properly programmed? Is the tooling/fixturing adequate for the job? Does the machine have an adequate guard? Was the tooling used within its capabilities and limitations? Are all controls including emergency stop button clearly labeled and/or color coded or size differentiated? Is the machine the right application for the given job?

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PEOPLE

MACHINES

MEASUREMENT

Questions to Ask When Performing RCA PROBLEM

u

MEASUREMENT – – –

– –

u

METHODS

ENVIRONMENT

Does the gage have a valid calibration date? Was the proper gage used to measure the part, process, chemical, compound, etc.? Was a gage capability study ever performed? – Do measurements vary significantly from operator to operator? – Do operators have a tough time using the prescribed gage? – Is the gage fixturing adequate? Does the gage have proper measurement resolution? Did the environment influence the measurements taken?

MATERIAL – – – – – – –

u

MATERIAL

Is a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) readily available? Was the material properly tested? Was the material substituted? Is the supplier’s process defined and controlled? Were quality requirements adequate for part function? Was the material contaminated? Was the material handled properly (stored, dispensed, used & disposed)?

ENVIRONMENT – – –

Is the process affected by temperature changes over the course of a day? Is the process affected by humidity, vibration, noise, lighting, etc.? Does the process run in a controlled environment? 24

PEOPLE

MACHINES

MEASUREMENT

Questions to Ask When Performing RCA PROBLEM

u

METHODS – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

MATERIAL

METHODS

ENVIRONMENT

Was the canister, barrel, etc. labeled properly? Were the workers trained properly in the procedure? Was the testing performed statistically significant? Have I tested for true root cause data? How many “if necessary” and “approximately” phrases are found in this process? Was this a process generated by an Integrated Product Development (IPD) Team? Was the IPD Team properly represented? Did the IPD Team employ Design for Environmental (DFE) principles? Has a capability study ever been performed for this process? Is the process under Statistical Process Control (SPC)? Are the work instructions clearly written? Are mistake-proofing devices/techniques employed? Are the work instructions complete? Is the tooling adequately designed and controlled? Is handling/packaging adequately specified? Was the process changed? Was the design changed? Was a process Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA) ever performed? Was adequate sampling done? Are features of the process critical to safety clearly spelled out to the Operator? 25

Fishbone Diagram Exercise PEOPLE

METHODS

MEASUREMENT

CHALLENGE: HIT CONSISTENTLY A FASTBALL BETWEEN 85-95 MPH.

MACHINES

MATERIALS

ENVIRONMENT

Q.) What are the factors that drive hitting a baseball? 26

Asking Why: sometimes Simple, sometimes Complex Root Cause Analysis sometimes requires the additional resources. Expert Lab Complex, High-Tech Equipment

Component Failed

Failure Analysis Lab, More Sophisticated Equipment

Circuit Board Malfunctioned

Sophisticated Tools or Analysis Equipment

Resources

Controller Failed

Simple Tools Hose Disconnected

1 Person (Brainpower)

Not Plugged In

Complexity 27

Summary •

• •

Root Cause Analysis is a method to focus our efforts on the true “Root Causes” of escapes, so that we truly prevent their reoccurrence. Root Cause Analysis helps us reduce turnbacks and frustration, maintain customer satisfaction, and reduce costs significantly. Each problem is an opportunity. It contains the information needed to eliminate the problem. But to identify the root cause, we have to ask “Why?” over and over, until we reach it.

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Root Cause Analysis

Root Cause Analysis 1 Root Cause Analysis • Root Cause Analysis is a method that is used to address a problem or non-conformance, in order to get t...

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