Zubin Mehta | HD Annabelle 2 - Creation (2017) | Arjun Rihan

Competencies and skills in the globalized workforce - Scholar Commons

Loading...

University of South Florida

Scholar Commons Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Graduate School

2004

Competencies and skills in the globalized workforce Mary Ellen, Reilly University of South Florida

Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd Part of the American Studies Commons Scholar Commons Citation Reilly, Mary Ellen,, "Competencies and skills in the globalized workforce" (2004). Graduate Theses and Dissertations. http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/1218

This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Graduate School at Scholar Commons. It has been accepted for inclusion in Graduate Theses and Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Scholar Commons. For more information, please contact [email protected]

Competencies And Skills In The Globalized Workforce by

Mary Ellen Reilly

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts Department of Government & International Relations College of Arts and Sciences University of South Florida

Major Professor: Dajin Peng, Ph.D. USF Committee Members Earl Conteh-Morgan, Ph.D. David B. Austell, Jr., Ph.D.

Date of Approval: April 2, 2004

Keywords: globalization, multinational corporations, academia, international trade communication © Copyright 2004, Mary Ellen Reilly

Table of Contents List of Tables ..................................................................................................................... iii List of Figures .................................................................................................................... iv ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................ v Chapter 1............................................................................................................................. 1 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 1 Statement of the Problem................................................................................................ 4 Purpose............................................................................................................................ 4 Research Questions......................................................................................................... 4 Significance of the Study ................................................................................................ 5 Definition of Terms......................................................................................................... 5 Chapter 2............................................................................................................................. 7 Literature Review................................................................................................................ 7 Globalization and Education Theory .............................................................................. 7 International Education and Exchange ........................................................................... 9 American Council on Education (ACE) Preliminary Status Report............................. 14 Developing the Global Workforce: A Case study by RAND Corporation.................. 15 Chapter 3........................................................................................................................... 25 Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 25 Overview of Project ...................................................................................................... 25 Development of the Survey Instrument ........................................................................ 28 Step I: Development of Literature Review and Initial Draft of List......................... 29 Step II: Review/Development Team........................................................................ 30 Step III: Instrument Development ........................................................................... 31 Step IV: Data Collection -- Administration of the Survey ...................................... 32 Chapter 4........................................................................................................................... 38 Data Analysis .................................................................................................................... 38 Validation Team............................................................................................................ 40 Chapter 5........................................................................................................................... 43 Limitations ........................................................................................................................ 43 Chapter 6........................................................................................................................... 45 Conclusions and Recommendations ................................................................................. 45 The List of Competencies and Skills — Contextual Basis ........................................... 55 Uses of the International Competencies and Skills....................................................... 55 i

Audiences for Products ................................................................................................. 55 Research and Evaluation............................................................................................... 55 Key Terms..................................................................................................................... 56 References......................................................................................................................... 58 Appendices........................................................................................................................ 64 Attachment A:............................................................................................................... 65 Preliminary List of Competencies and Skills............................................................ 65 Attachment B: ............................................................................................................... 80 Survey Instrument..................................................................................................... 80 Attachment C: ............................................................................................................. 105 List of Competencies and Skills with Recommendations from Survey Results..... 105

ii

List of Tables

Table 1: Overview of Targeted Sample Respondents....................................................... 35 Table 2: Overview of Stratified Sample ........................................................................... 36 Table 3: Years of Experience with Current Organization ................................................ 39 Table 4: Years of Experience Training for International Setting ..................................... 39 Table 5: Years of Experience in Current Position* .......................................................... 39 Table 6: Audiences ........................................................................................................... 39

iii

List of Figures Figure 1. McCarthy: Three-Dimensional Matrix for Undergraduate Curriculum............ 12 Figure 2. International Sales: Percent of Total Sales........................................................ 19 Figure 3. Effect of 9-11..................................................................................................... 20 Figure 4. Importance of International Skills in Professional Staff Positions.................... 22 Figure 5. Importance of International Skills in Line Positions......................................... 23 Figure 6: International Competencies and skills Target ................................................... 51

iv

Competencies and Skills in the Globalized Workforce Mary Ellen (Lynn) Reilly

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of international programs in preparing participants for effective engagement in the world’s economy and the complexity of multiple societies and cultures. The study’s objective is to identify and assess the skills and competencies that are in demand for graduates of international programs, from both the United States and foreign perspectives, and their main economic social and civic contributions. This research project develops, pilots and validates a list of critical competencies and skills for persons starting careers in international settings, creating a unique and valuable product. In addition, the project uses the validated listing for gathering and analyzing preliminary empirical data to help understand and evaluate the outcomes and importance of these competencies from three different—yet related perspectives—major employers, preparation institutions, and recent graduates of the program. The researcher will address the following questions: 1. What are the competencies and skills being required of employees and perspective employees as identified by the businesses and the corporate world? 2. What are the competencies and skills being emphasized by academic institutions in preparing prospective employees for the world of work? v

3. To what extent are the competencies and skills of academic programs congruent with the required competencies and skills of the corporate world? The products of this work provide for the first time a valuable foundation for policy, planning, research, evaluation, and marketing the nature and importance of high quality, well prepared higher education graduates to meet the needs of our country’s global workforce.

vi

Chapter 1 Introduction One of the most relevant problems facing the United States, and other countries as well, is how to improve citizens’ abilities to function in an increasingly global world. A rapidly growing collection of skills is crucial to the success of professionals who must address the issues and conflicts that may arise in globalized employment settings. Challenges of global competition, corporate downsizing, economic dislocation, and industrial renaissance are the telling new buzzwords in corporate America (Jusela, 2000). And the challenges are not restricted only to those in a competitive global environment—but also lie in developing methods to improve both organizational performance and individual development (Porras and Silvers, 1991). Spurred by the global economy, profound change moves through nations, touching myriad aspects of social life within them and transforming interactions between them. The impact of globalization reaches far deeper into human life than mere business or economics. Global media increasingly influence local cultural practices, and globalized education is an issue with which every nation must contend. The creation and diffusion of new technologies, including those of the Internet, are transfiguring the nature of science, communication, education, work, leisure—in other words, nearly every facet of human life. Increasing globalization appears inevitable, and it will likely affect every individual on Earth. This situation makes the study of globalization’s impact on education crucial to United States’ efforts to remain competitive in an increasingly high-stakes arena. Given the ubiquitous nature of globalization in everyday life as well as in business, United 1

States citizens, who are generally less likely to have international experience than their counterparts in Europe or Asia, must become prepared to participate effectively in all facets of global life. The relative isolation of the United States, due to the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and only two international borders shared with Canada and Mexico, has been breached, probably forever, by globalization. In this ever-shrinking world, United States international professionals must have knowledge and abilities that go beyond the profit margin and the superficial understanding of cultural differences. To develop professionals who are deeply aware of other cultures and economies in the global village, we must be highly competitive in the education, preparation, recruitment, and training of our labor force. As might be expected then, developing effective internationalization initiatives for education has become an increasingly competitive field, and the United States must continue to be a strong contender to remain competitive. It is both strategic and practical for the United States public to be interested in and supportive of international student programs reflecting global thinking and global consciousness—programs in which international curriculum, students, and study opportunities add value to initiatives (professional, social, and civic efficacy). Many examples of private sector investment in international programs add to United States business competitiveness in a global economy. The federal government also supports international programs for their contribution to overall social, civic, and economic health and well-being—although funding levels have diminished at this critical time when individual, regional, and national competitiveness is being challenged by rising demands and by good performance from economies and societies worldwide. 2

Recommendations from “A Research Agenda for the Internationalization of Higher Education in the United States” report the presence of a strong desire to produce graduates who are well suited to the blend of international cooperation and competition (AEIA, 1995). While there is general support for programs to accomplish this, educational entities need more specific information in order to articulate the value such programs add to graduates’ participation, cultural transition, and effectiveness in the global environment. Bennell and Pearce (2003) have made a strong argument that language will remain a critical constraint in this process of internationalization of higher education. International consortia of higher education and other institutions are also likely to become increasingly common, especially among countries in increasingly powerful regional economic and political blocks, such as the European Union, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Asia Pacific Economic Corporation (APEC), and Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). According to Kedia and Daniel (2003), when the question arises as to which skills are important for employees hired in international positions, the true question becomes a matter of how much difference these skills will make in the performance of such employees, or whether technical and business skills are enough for them to perform appropriately. With increasing globalization of the business environment and greater concerns about terrorism and homeland security, there is a need to re-assess what top managers perceive to be the critical workforce skills necessary for their organizations to succeed in today’s global business environment.

3

Statement of the Problem One of the United States’ most compelling needs is the enhancement of our ability to train, educate, and prepare our youthful population to enter the workforce ready to compete with individuals from other areas of the world. The stark need to enhance, or internationalize, United States educational programs drew the researcher to this project. This existing situation therefore begs the questions resulting from what seems to be incongruity in the apparent needs of the workplace and the training being provided by academic institutions, particularly as it relates to international positions.

This situation

captured the attention of the researcher, who works in an internationally related field, and formed the impetus for this research. Purpose The study’s objective is to identify and assess the importance, from both business and educational perspectives, of competencies and skills required of graduates who seek professional employment in an international setting. The importance of these competencies and skills from both a business and educational perspective is of primary importance to this research. Research Questions It is anticipated that answers to the research questions will provide the educators/facilitators within the business or educational arena with empirical data noting the knowledge, skills and attitudes required of graduates to be able to compete in a dynamic global market. The major research questions are:

4

1.

What are the competencies and skills being required of employees and prospective employees as identified by the businesses and the corporate world?

2.

What are the competencies and skills being emphasized by academic institutions in preparing prospective employees for the world of work?

3.

To what extent are the competencies and skills of academic programs congruent with the required competencies and skills of the corporate world? Significance of the Study

The research findings should contribute to the understanding of international programs in preparing participants for effective engagement in the world’s economy and in the complexity of multiple societies and cultures. It should help to provide program developers and facilitators with insights for effective program development and delivery. Definition of Terms Cognitive, social and personal skills — These generic skills are the skills individuals must acquire in order to communicate well with others, and are further enhanced by providing a high-quality education. Globalization — Thomas Friedman’s explanation of globalization is that it is the “process by which the herd helps to build the foundation stones of democracy. These globalization concepts are: perspective consciousness, state of planet awareness, crosscultural awareness, knowledge of global dynamics, and awareness of human choices. International Setting — The expression international setting has been operationally defined as a domestic (United States) or foreign (non-United States) cross-sector work 5

setting where a critical part of the employee’s assignment (as determined by the employer) entails international or intercultural work with foreign persons or foreign entities; or a knowledge of one or more other cultures to fulfill successfully assigned duties and responsibilities. Public Sector — The public sector is operationally defined as a governmental or publicly funded section of society responsible for providing goods or services. Private Sector — The private sector is operationally defined as the business section of society. Non-governmental Organization — A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a voluntary organization with the purpose of providing goods or services to the public. Cross Cultural Competence — Cross-cultural competence includes an understanding of globalization in the broad systematic sense, along with personal traits, generic skills and domain knowledge needed for applying it effectively in new contexts.

6

Chapter 2 Literature Review Globalization and Education Theory Globalization is an abstract term that has become popular in the 1990s (Blackmore, 2000). Globalization has increased economic, cultural, environmental, and social interdependencies. New financial and political formations arise out of the mobility of capital, labor, and information. Globalization is about the changing nature of state relations between different communities. It is about relations between the individual, state, and market and between nation states; education is positioned in these shifting relations. Globalization is a trend toward a worldwide free flow of goods, services, capital, workforce, and information. (Blackmore, 2000) Within this context, globalization includes not only cross-border flows, but also a new, shared conceptualization of reality, which includes growing cultural and informational dimensions. The symbol of our times at the international level is competitiveness, which is based less now on natural resources and more on trained human resources. Globalization calls for a strengthened articulation between lower levels of education and the higher education sector. It also calls for improved congruence among universities, societal needs, and employers’ requirements. The competencies and skills of students being prepared to graduate from universities should reflect the needs of the society as well as the requirements of the employers. Globalization is uniting the world, and it is transforming the workplace, job market, and community (Friedman 1999). Friedman encourages the United States to create a strategy that will make globalization sustainable to ensure that the United States will 7

always be able to compete effectively with the rest of the world. He would like to see a different approach to health care, welfare, education, job training, the environment, market regulation, social security, campaign finance, and expansion of free trade. The contention is that globalization demands our society to move faster, work smarter, and take more risks than ever before. The relationship between globalization and education is defined as the changed relationship between education and state (Morrow and Torres 2000). While the public education system in the old capitalist order is mostly oriented toward the production of a disciplined and reliable workforce, the new global economy requires workers with the capacity to learn quickly and to work in teams. The argument is that the history of the state and public education systems are fundamental elements of explaining public policy in education in the context of globalization. The rise of a global informational economy has weakened the state. The weakened position of the state has opened the way for increased stagnation of education. Morrow and Torres believe that renewed calls for international education have critical potential. Apple (2000) is one of several scholars who believe that two conservative groups dominate education policy in America today. First, neoliberalists are those who believe that the world market should mold education policy and that every student should be educated for a place in the workforce. Second, neoconservatives strongly support a return to the traditional schooling of the “basics” (reading, writing, and arithmetic) and moral education based on the beliefs of fundamentalist religions (Apple, 2000). Apple thinks that these groups are the most vocal and politically powerful forces in American education today, greatly interfering with forward-thinking education reform. He 8

contends however, that neither group is ready to grasp the realities of globalization and restructure schools so that they prepare students for success, as well as survival in the globalized world. Education is still driven by bureaucracies that, despite good intentions, are bound to the status quo, due to their rigid structures (Burbles & Torres, 2000). With corporate downsizing and privatization of government agencies, including schools, taking within the organization to do what is necessary, we must equip students by teaching them the skills necessary for them to succeed once they become workers (Kaye, 1998). International Education and Exchange During the twenty years following World War II, United States leaders learned that the challenges of the Cold War demanded that Americans acquire knowledge of the world outside their borders. International education programs were created to provide Americans with the skills necessary to obtain international competence. However, since the end of the Cold War, exchange programs, that were once well financed by United States government and private foundations, have been struggling to obtain funding. In the past, exchange programs helped to create institutional ties and research alliances between exchange students, their home countries, and the host countries (www.NAFSA.org). Many United States universities now provide exchange programs of their own, as opposed to Federal exchange programs. Economic, competitive research and expansion of the international dimensions of higher education are a few of the key areas now in a state of flux. Hence, a proposal for an international education policy is written by the Coalition for Education and signed by President Clinton in April 2001. Furthermore, on 9

December 12, 2000, then President-elect George W. Bush’s transition team was briefed by the Alliance for International Education (AIEA) and was asked to commit to the goals in the statement of the National Association of International Educators (NAFSA) and AIEA. The administration was also asked to support an International Education Policy for the United States; to reaffirm the April 19, 2000 Executive Memorandum on International Education; and to expand upon it by developing a comprehensive federal approach to enhancing international education and exchange (AIEA 2001). National needs continue to emerge, resulting in the area of internationalization of undergraduate education (McCarthy 1998). McCarthy refers to the writings of Robert Kohls (1996), who believes that there will be an increase in the number of nation-states; this will further fracture the globe into cultural, linguistic and ethnic subsets. The most dramatic changes will take place in the shifting of economic powers, the G7 of the world; the list of G7 countries already misrepresents the leading economic powers (Kohls 1996). The seven leading powers today are considered to be the United States, Japan, China, Germany, France, Italy, and India in rank order. Kohls projects that by the year 2020 the United States will lose ground and that the G7 will then be China, United States, Japan, India, Indonesia, Germany, and South Korea. According to Kohls, there will be continued movement toward the surrender of some sovereignty by nation-states. European and North American trading blocks are an example, along with emerging trading blocks in the Pacific Rim and Latin America. These trading blocks have made an impact on the international political economy. Transnational social movement organizations (TSMOs), most established since 1945, are also on the rise. These TSMOs, now numbering approximately 600, could act as powerful 10

change agents. Also, with future trends there will be an increase in the number of nationstates. Since the international political economy is witnessing a rise in trading blocks and TSMOS, there has been an erosion of national sovereignty. The contention is that while other countries have been honing global skills as necessary for their economic and political survival, United States progress in recent years has been monopolized by defining the concept of global competence. With the re-definition of global security in terms of economic, political, cultural, and environmental changes, there must be specialists who have developed skills suggested by the international business community (McCarthy, 1998). McCarthy designed a three-dimensional matrix that provides an excellent visual explanation of what should be provided in the undergraduate curriculum for students attending United States institutions. This matrix can be used as a guide for the advisory board for any academic institution of higher education in the United States. The areas of education described below involve the following fields of study: languages, area studies, interdisciplinary studies, major fields of studies and minor/cluster/certificate programs.

11

Figure 1. McCarthy: Three-Dimensional Matrix for Undergraduate Curriculum

XT

Perspective Consciousness Sk il l

s

TE

State of Planet Awareness

n

t io R

es

N

ct

n

ta

es

en

Bu m

t io

i ld

in

g

f li on C

n

Pr

Te a er

t in

g

In

fl u

en

Le

ce

ad

er

sh

ip

tt e ra l/ W ri O Ex

Minor/Cluster/Certificate

Major Field

Interdisciplinary Studies

Area Studies

Languages

General Education

SKILLS

eg

ut

ot

io

ia

Knowledge of Global D ynamics Awareness of H uman C hoices

ol

C

n

O

N

Cross-Cultural Awareness

©JoAnn McCarthy, Old Dominion University

CONTENT

These fields of study should enable students to gain the competencies and skills emphasized by academic institutions in preparing employees well for the world of work. Globalization concepts should be taught in the general education fields of study. These globalization concepts are: perspective consciousness, state-of-planet awareness, cross-cultural awareness, knowledge of global dynamics and awareness of human choices. Undergraduate students should acquire the following types of skills: negotiation, conflict resolution, team building, oral and written and presentation, leadership, and exerting influence, by applying them to the globalization concepts in the content of the fields of study listed in the matrix. (Figure 1, p.11)

12

American institutions of higher learning will remain attractive to foreign students and scholars. Their interests, and the interests of those who fund them, will focus less on acquiring an understanding of American society and more on acquiring a set of skills in some aspect of any contemporary society. Insofar as the educational goals of foreign students in the United States extend beyond acquiring advanced knowledge of techniques and methodologies in specific fields of study, they are likely to emphasize understanding the difference between how a globalizing force affects change in the United States and their own societies, so they can better manage change in an integrated global setting (McCarthy, 1998). The value of international trade in knowledge and skills is being recognized worldwide. Bennell and Pearce (2003) discuss the extent to which higher education in Great Britain and Australia has been internationalized. They believe that global interest in international competencies and skills will continue to grow exponentially as the pressures on governments to create highly skilled societies continue to intensify and trade barriers are eliminated with the widespread enforcement of WTO provisions. Many foreign countries, most notably China and India, are rapidly opening to the global economy. Direct foreign investment in education and training provision is also likely to become increasingly important as overseas investors establish overseas campuses and facilities. Therefore, governments, especially in developing and transitional economies, will be interested in creating environments for overseas educational providers. Finally, one of the consequences of the rapid opening of national education and training markets to international competition is that the process of qualification escalation already rife in most developing countries is likely to intensify considerably. Individuals 13

recognize that acquiring internationally recognized and negotiable qualifications significantly improves their positions in a poor job market. There is real danger, therefore, that the increased availability of foreign qualifications will spark a new wave of credentialism in developing countries. American Council on Education (ACE) Preliminary Status Report A telephone survey, written by Fred M. Hayward, was conducted across United States campuses for a preliminary status report (ACE 2000). Using a national random sample of 1006 respondents over the age of 18, the study found that the public strongly supports international efforts at United States higher education institutions and that students are interested in international education courses and opportunities. Also, parents and students consider international education opportunities when selecting a college or university. Overall, however, the level of internationalization on United States campuses is low. International higher education has reached a crossroads, and higher education officials need to acknowledge the support of the public and the expectations of the students. A benefit of the ACE study is that people are rethinking what United States institutions are doing to internationalize undergraduate education. Higher education institutions must prepare students for a globalized and highly interconnected world. Although it is unclear whether the low levels of internationalization are the result of a weak student demand, under-funding, a limited curriculum, or other impediments, ACE researchers contend that colleges and universities should take steps to explore the issues and respond to the public demand for greater postsecondary international education (ACE, 2000). 14

International education at United States colleges and universities is a poorly documented phenomenon. The data available for analysis are methodologically suspect, inappropriate for comparison, and too outdated to be of value. There are only a few state studies with little detailed information about the employment market’s needs for workers with international expertise. According to the study, if recent shifts at several federal government agencies are any indication, there is going to be demand for workers with foreign language skills (ACE 2000). Developing the Global Workforce: A Case study by RAND Corporation The case study conducted by RAND Corporation (1994) is a corporation report that discusses how American corporations and universities view globalization. The study also assessed how corporations and universities are responding to its current and probable future effects, particularly in the area of human resources. This case study determined what globalization meant to corporations in the United States in 1994. The human resources implications of globalization were compared to what corporations and colleges were doing to meet the human resource needs at the time. What corporations were doing to co-produce a competent global workforce was reviewed. The RAND study conducted interviews at 16 corporations and 16 academic institutions. Four major urban areas in distinct regions of the United States were designated for the study. The corporations included manufacturing, construction, business, and technological service firms. All the firms in the study were multinational or had international business strategies. The academic institutions include both public and private colleges and universities. All had mission statements or programs that

15

acknowledged a desire to prepare graduates to participate in a global and international political economy. Findings from this research indicated that cooperation is mutually advantageous to universities as well as to corporations. RAND therefore recommended that corporations and educational institutions work together to assume joint responsibility for co-producing a globally competent workforce. RAND researchers also recommended diversity training. They found that multicultural competence is a new skill that globally oriented corporations are beginning to require. The researchers stated that although most of the interviewees from the 1994 research, particularly in the academic arena, believe that multicultural competence is an important skill in business, especially international businesses. Individuals who possessed skills in multicultural competency were hard to find operating in the global market. Unfortunately, active efforts by the universities to integrate their domestic and international students are few and sporadic. RAND researchers would like to see more opportunity for interaction between the domestic and international population at academic institutions in order to create more multicultural competency among students. Lastly, RAND researchers recommend that graduating requirements should be upgraded for generic cognitive skills. Generic cognitive skills can and must be learned in a multicultural environment. RAND cautions that there are limitations to the study in that the findings are based on the perceptions and behaviors regarding globalization revealed by the study’s sample, and that the sample might not, in fact, generalize to all United States corporate and academic institutions. The corporations and academic institutions in the study were selected based on already being cognizant of and responsive to the global economic environment and 16

international political economic arena. Furthermore, even in 1994, the researchers felt that some anecdotal information was even then already outdated due to a rapidly changing environment. The findings of the RAND pilot study, however, have implications for corporate and academic institutions involved in adapting organizational policies and practices to meet the human resource demands of the internationalized or global economy. RAND researchers reiterate that cross-cultural competence is the new human resource requirement for corporations with global business strategies; however, at the time of the study, this skill was in shortest supply. Cross-cultural competence includes an understanding of globalization in the broad systematic sense and personal traits, generic skills and domain knowledge are all needed for an individual to function, particularly in the context of the international global market. FURTHER FINDINGS: The RAND study was considered as the model for the American International Educators Association (AIEA) survey. However, because of the limitations cited in the RAND study another research study that seemed to address issues relating to the sample was considered. According to research conducted by professors of business administration Kedia and Daniel January, (2003), when it comes to answering the question of what international skills are important for employees hired for international positions, the true question becomes a matter of how much a difference will these skills make in the performance of such employees, or if technical and business skills are enough for them to perform appropriately. With increasing globalization of the business environment and greater concerns about terrorism and homeland security, there is a need 17

to reassess what top managers perceive to be the critical workforce skills necessary for their organizations to succeed in today’s business environment. Kedia and Daniel sent out a survey to chief executive officers (CEOs) and human resource (HR) directors of Fortune 500 and INC 500 companies. Indirectly, 30 Centers for Business Education and Research (CIBERS) and 56 Business International Education (BIE) grant recipient schools were asked to collaborate in the data collection efforts by sending out surveys of their initial contact companies. The response rate from the Fortune 500 and INC 500 targeted firms was very low. However, the response rate from the contact companies of the CIBERs and BIE grantees was high. One hundred and twenty seven surveys were returned, of which 16 were not useable. This resulted in a total of 111 usable surveys for analysis. Since top managers other than the CEOs or HR directors completed several of the surveys, Kedia and Daniel’s research treats the respondents as top managers and not exclusively as CEOs or HR directors. Respondents were often executive vice presidents, senior vice presidents, directors and senior managers working in such functional areas as international business development, international sales, operations, marketing and finance. Of the respondents 32% were CEOs, and 9% were HR directors. Seventy-two percent of the respondents indicated that they have responsibility for their company’s international business, and 52% of these have responsibility for the total organization. Fifty-nine percent are involved in making international hiring and overseas assignment decisions. Twenty-five percent had held an international assignment during their careers, and nearly 40% spoke a foreign language.

18

As shown in Figure 2, Kedia and Daniel also found that almost 40% of the companies reported their international sales growing more rapidly than domestic sales; less than 35% reported international activities growing less rapidly than their domestic activities. Therefore, international sales and activities currently represent a very significant portion of United States business. Figure 2. International Sales: Percent of Total Sales

Number of Respondents

45

40

40 35 30

27

26

25 20 15 10 5 0 less than 5%

5%-30%

More than 30%

Percentage of Sales that comes from International Business

The first issue addressed by Kedia and Daniel was the importance of various world regions to the companies, both now and in the future. (This information may guide the area studies and language education that business students are encouraged to take.) Respondents were asked to rate current importance and future importance of five different regions to their companies. The ranking of current markets in order of importance was Asia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa. Companies expect all markets to increase in importance in the future.

19

Figure 3. Effect of 9-11

Reconsidered of International awareness and competence among staff and line due to terrorism

25% 75%

Another question addressed by Kedia and Daniel was whether terrorism and federal security measures have made companies reconsider international awareness competence. As shown in Figure 3, interestingly, only 25% of the companies have reconsidered international competencies among their professional staff and line management abroad and domestically even though over 30% of the companies have been affected by the security measures. These statistics clearly show that while the events of September 11, 2001, have had an adverse effect on business, the effect has not been as devastating as feared by many. In Kedia and Daniel’s survey, about 80% of the companies indicated that they rely mainly on foreign nationals to manage international operations with foreign offices. In general, companies hire U.S. nationals to manage their U.S. operations and hire foreign nationals to manage their foreign operations. This indicates U.S. companies tend not to send U.S. citizens to foreign operations; neither do they employ foreign nationals in U.S. 20

management positions. It is not clear whether this is primarily due to cost consideration and immigration restrictions, or whether the U.S. talent pool has insufficient language and cultural knowledge to function effectively abroad. If U.S. companies are hiring convenience they may be missing the opportunity to employ talented people and to reap the benefits of multicultural management teams, both at their home country operations and host country operations. Another aspect of the study focused on the perceptions of companies regarding what kinds of international expertise are important for two different employment categories, namely, professional staff and line management. Staff functions are support jobs that provide service and advice to line departments (Hellriegel, Stocum and Woodman, 1999). Line functions are those jobs that directly affect the principal work flow in an organization. Foreign language skills and international work experience received the lowest average ratings, probably because so many of the firms handle their international operations from the U.S. Even so, about 20% of the firms indicate that foreign language skills and international work experience are of great importance to them for both line and professional staff managers and only 2% of line management. This indicates that, at a minimum, firms need their management personnel to understand the global economic climate in which the firm operates. Some of the most significant results of the Kedia and Daniel study were the differences between what companies need from management level and from entry level personnel. Companies were asked at what organizational level in terms of (a) hiring; b) assignment; (c) promotion for professional staff and line management, do international

21

and/or language skills become important factors. This was particularly interesting since the AIEA survey focused only on entry level staff. Figure 4. Importance of International Skills in Professional Staff Positions Management Level Entry Level Foreign language skills

International Skills

International work experience Understanding of local markets/business practices A global perspective Appreciation for crosscultural differences Socio-political knowledge of country

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Importance (0 = Not Important; 1 = Important)

Figure 4 focuses on professional staff, for both management and entry levels. Sixtyeight percent of the companies indicated that a global perspective was important for professional staff management, but only 26% indicated it’s for entry level staff. An appreciation for foreign language skills and cross-cultural differences were the most important requirements at the entry level for both staff and line personnel, with between 20% and 40% of the firms indicating that these are important entry-level skills. As professional staff move into management, they need to increase their global perspective and cross-cultural appreciation since 60% to 70% of the firms believe these skills are important for professional staff management. Only 25% to 45% believe the same of 22

entry-level positions. These beliefs seem valid, given the increasingly broad range and impact of decisions made as managers progress in their careers. Figure 5. Importance of International Skills in Line Positions Management Level Entry Level

International Skills

Foreign language skills International w ork experience

Understanding of local markets/business practices A global perspective

Country socio-political know ledge

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Appreciation for crosscultural differences

0.4

0.5

Importance (0 = Not Important; 1 = Important)

Figure 5 focuses on line management positions, for both management and entry levels. In general, line personnel require less international knowledge than professional staff at all levels. With respect to line positions at the management level, appreciation for cross-cultural differences, a global perspective and understanding of local markets or business practices have almost equivalent importance for companies when they make staffing decisions for the positions at the entry-level, appreciation for cross-cultural differences in the most important skill and foreign language skill is the second most important skill. Overall, other international skills for line positions seem to have little importance at the entry level, primarily because such personnel would typically have

23

little decision making authority and little contact with customers, suppliers and others outside their company. Over 30% of the firms indicated that it is currently difficult to find United States nationals with the international knowledge, expertise and language skills needed, almost 80% of the firms will place a greater emphasis on international competence among management and employees over the next ten years. Therefore, there is very little congruence between the competencies and skills of academic programs and the required competencies and skills of the corporate world. This is consistent with the proportion of firms that expect their percentage of international sales to increase and clearly indicates that there will be a greater demand for international business education in the U.S. over the next decade. Perhaps as a result of the increasing importance of international operations and the need for greater levels of international expertise at management levels, over half the firms indicated that they have engaged in training programs designed to promote international competence.

24

Chapter 3 Methodology Overview of Project This research project was funded by a $20,000 grant from the Association of International Education Administrators for this project. This grant included $19,827 of in-kind resources provided by the Institute for Instructional Research and Practice and my own in-kind services at the International Affairs Center. Seventeen pages long, it consisted of 12 demographic questions (name, affiliation, years of experience, etc.), 3½ pages of contextual information and directions, a list of 166 items (competencies and skills to be rated on a Likert Scale), and 5 open-ended questions about the list. The respondents were asked to rate the importance of each item as follows: 1)

Very Important

2)

Important

3)

Somewhat Important

4)

Not Very Important

5)

Delete from List

The survey was mailed to 160 recipients in 6 states in discrete areas of the United States. The recipients were deans, faculty members, corporate or business senior managers, personnel directors or human resource directors of corporations and universities, students, not-for-profit organizations, and governmental agencies. The sample included public and private businesses and universities. In total, 548 surveys were mailed to 160 individuals. In many instances, a package of five surveys was mailed to an individual; this individual was to complete the survey and fulfill a request to 25

identify others to complete surveys. This is the case with some deans, who were asked to identify faculty members and recent graduates to complete the survey. Included in this request was a profile of a desirable respondent. A similar strategy was used for some corporations; a package of surveys was mailed to a human resources director or senior manager requesting that, in addition to completion the survey, identification of other professionals and recently hired employees to complete the survey. Again, criteria to guide the selection of other respondents were included. An introduction letter with background on the project was also included. Later, a reminder of the deadline was mailed to each individual. Yet a third correspondence was sent with the purpose of extending the time frame for returning the surveys. Due to the slow response rate from the business community, researchers also attempted to contact each corporation by telephone and electronic mail. In addition to building on the priorities reported in A Research Agenda for the Internationalization of Higher Education in the United States, the Institute research team attempted to bud upon the findings from the CPC Foundation/RAND Corporation Report, Developing the Global Work Force (1994). This study addressed issues similar to those in the current study: What does “globalizm” mean to education and training needs and to the paths of United States citizens? This research project involved the development, piloting, and preliminary validation of a list of critical competencies and skills for graduates starting careers in international settings. Using the list of competencies, there was an attempt made to gather and analyze preliminary empirical data to help understand and evaluate the importance of these competencies from three different, yet related, perspectives—of major employers, 26

preparation institutions, and recent graduates. The method of data collection was a questionnaire survey administered through the mail or electronically. The survey was administered to a representative sample of three populations: the business community, institutions of higher education and graduating seniors seeking professional positions. The list of competencies and skills would provide for the first time, a valuable foundation for policy, planning, research, evaluation and marketing the nature and importance of high quality, well prepared higher education graduates to meet the needs of our country’s global workforce. The sample of business organizations represented public and private institutions (such as multinational firms with an international business strategy, the State Department and the Department of Commerce). A description of who were asked to complete the survey within each population is presented below: Business Organizations: senior management, personnel or human resources department, recruitment and training directors or senior members of two or more line departments, recently hired entry-level professional employees. Higher educational institutions: representatives of high-level decision-making members of AIEA, and representatives of higher educational institutions’ career centers. Recent job seeking graduates of higher educational institutions: a representative sample of students who graduated from institutions that participated in programs that prepare graduates to enter an international workforce. The survey instrument was designed to determine and prioritize the competencies and skills that are desired and valued by the international business community and to determine whether or not students graduating from institutions of higher education 27

possess those competencies and skills to successfully transition and succeed in the global workforce. Development of the Survey Instrument Phase I: Critical pieces of professional literature were identified and thoroughly reviewed in order to prepare an initial, tentative draft of competencies and skills. These competencies and skills were identified as those that seemed to be desired by the stakeholders. They included those already considered important in undergraduate curricula in the United States institutions of higher education. Competencies and skills represented the independent variables and the dependant variable was acceptability for entry-level employment in a globalized economy. Phase II: A team was convened to review the relevant literature and other materials. The product achieved was to review the literature in order to further develop the set of competencies and skills with a proposed ranking with a system to prioritize importance. The review team presented this work product to the writing team. Phase III: A writing team was convened, but the majority of its work was conducted through electronic mail and the internet. Three versions of the writing instrument were developed in order to accommodate the three distinct populations sampled. Within each version of the survey, the content (skills, competencies and attitudes) were not altered— only the phrasing of the questions were slightly changed to accommodate the reader. Respondents scored the survey items using a Likert Scale. The list of competencies and skills will provide, for the first time, a valuable foundation for policy, planning, research, evaluation, and marketing the nature and

28

importance of high quality, well prepared higher education graduates to meet the needs of our country’s global workforce. In addition to building on the priorities reported in A Research Agenda for the Internationalization of Higher Education in the United States, the Institute research team attempted to build upon the findings from the CPC Foundation / RAND Corporation Report, Developing the Global Work Force (1994). This study addressed issues similar to those in the current study: What does “globalism” mean to education and training needs, and career paths of United States citizens? The methodology for this project required adjustment as the work developed. Several project steps were difficult to execute as originally planned because of the unavailability of corporate and business subject matter experts Step I: Development of Literature Review and Initial Draft of List The relevant literature was thoroughly researched and reviewed. A preliminary, systematic job analysis was developed from the review of literature and thorough expert examination. The literature review was then used to generate the initial, preliminary list of relevant competencies and skills. The completed literature review identified the most relevant pieces of literature supporting the list. With expert opinions taken into account, the list included competencies already considered to be important in the undergraduate curriculum for students attending United States institutions (McCarthy 1998). The competencies and skills are generic, i.e., applicable to various disciplines and positions (but not levels). Project personnel are well aware that positions in certain industries, even at entry-level, may have relatively specific competencies and skills required for or tailored to that position: This list does not aim to 29

address such specific skills or competencies. At this stage, subject matter experts have developed a preliminary list of generic competencies and skills – to be reviewed and finetuned by the review/development team in the next step of the project. Step II: Review/Development Team A review/development team, consisting of several international competencies and skills subject matter experts (SMEs) representing both the business community and higher education, convened for a two-day meeting. The preliminary systematic job analysis, the literature review, key pieces of the literature and the list (developed with expert opinion and the relevant literature ) of relevant competencies and skills were developed by (Step I, above). To the review/development team, the literature review and key pieces of literature were presented—for review and further refinement. Project staff facilitated this development team meeting during which the materials were reviewed, some in person and some via electronic mail, and clarified or fine-tuned the preliminary list of competencies and skills. Overall, the SMEs were quite familiar with the research, especially that was conducted abroad, e.g., Australia and Canada. The project’s primary subject matter expert, consultants, an academic leader and AIEA member from Canada, identified. They did not identify some significant research and reports not included in the prepared review. The review team stated that the generic competencies and skills appeared desirable from two perspectives, that of 1) corporations hiring recent graduates for international positions; and 2) institutions of higher education where students are trained and prepared for the workplace. They did not address the third viewpoint, that of graduates seeking employment. 30

Step III: Instrument Development A writing team of SMEs, then formalized the list of competencies and skills. Because of time and mobility constraints on the part of the subject matter experts, the writing team communicated and worked electronically. The team decided on a protocol for the style of writing, i.e., wording of competencies and skills, and then team members wrote individually. Next, they fleshed out the competencies and skills into a working list and developed groupings of and headings for the competencies and skills. Finally, the written product was aggregated and then reviewed through electronic mail. Additional subject matter experts, not involved in the development of the preliminary list, reviewed it yet again via electronic mail and recommended revisions. The recommended revisions were subsequently made, and this revised list of competencies and skills is included as Attachment A. The project called for data to be collected from the three populations, business and governmental personnel, university faculty and staff members, and recently graduated employment seekers. In order to collect data regarding the degree to which key stakeholders (audiences) agreed with the selection of competencies and skills and to ascertain the relative importance of each, a survey instrument was designed around the list of competencies and skills. This revised list is the main substance of the survey instrument. The team of experts decided upon a five-point-rating scale, ranging from ‘Very Important’ to ‘Delete from List’ so that respondents could indicate the relative importance of each skill and competency listed. The survey instrument also included demographic questions and a few open-ended questions.

31

The survey instrument is modified slightly, according to the sample respondent type: corporate, academic, or student/recent graduate. Within each version of the survey, the content of skills, competencies and attitudes is not altered. Only the phrasing of the directions is changed to accommodate the type of respondent: a student/graduate, faculty member, human resources officer, recruiter, senior decision maker, placement specialist, or personnel director. For example, the students/graduates were asked to indicate the extent to which they were taught or trained in the competencies and skills—rather than how important they believed each to be. The survey was then disseminated to the three populations: businesses, postsecondary institutions, and recent graduates. Step IV: Data Collection -- Administration of the Survey The questionnaire survey was administered either by electronic mail or as a paper/pencil instrument through the mail with return envelope and postage provided. To maximize the return rate, respondents were provided approximately thirty days, an ample amount of time for completing and returning the survey. In addition, each respondent received two follow-up letters, one as a reminder and the second as a reminder and an offer of additional time if needed. The survey instrument was designed to serve the following three functions: 1. To identify the competencies and skills desired and valued for international positions by both the business community and academia 2. To prioritize the competencies and skills by importance and relevance 3. To determine whether students graduating from institutions of higher education believe they possess those competencies and skills deemed necessary to successfully transition into and succeed in the global workforce 32

Sample Design The design expands upon the work of the RAND study (referenced in “Overview of Project”), Project staff thoroughly reviewed the methodology and sampling design used by RAND. Finding its method and design sound, its design was adapted as the base of this project and expanded as required. Two of the main differences, however, are RAND’s use of the case-study approach and RAND’s extensive efforts in securing the participation of previously identified corporate representatives prior to beginning data collection. RAND Corporation secured corporate participation through extensive preparatory work and relied on substantial name recognition and reputation. RAND research staff conducted personal, face-to-face interviews at 32 institutions. These institutions were distributed evenly among four major urban areas in distinct regions of the United States. The current project utilizes similar sample selection criteria and similar regional stratification. Population The survey was administered to a representative sample that is stratified along two dimensions: target audience and geography. One level of stratification involved stratifying the sample to target three audiences. A description of the type of respondent targeted within each sample follows: Business organizations: senior management, personnel or human resources staff members, recruiters and trainers, directors or senior members, line department directors, and recently hired entry-level professional employees both public and private institutions. The sample of business organizations represented public and private institutions, e.g., multinational firms with an international business strategy, the State Department, and the Department of Commerce; Higher 33

education institutions: senior decision-makers, members of AIEA, and representatives of career centers at higher education institutions; Recent employment graduates of higher educational institutions: students who graduated from programs to prepare graduates to enter an international workforce in entry-level positions. Sampling Strategy for Grant and Sample Size Participating entities were selected not on the basis of being representative of “businesses” or “colleges” in general, but of being fully aware of, and actively responding to, the increasingly global economic environment. Corporation selection criteria included the following: Manufacturing, construction, and business and technical service firms; multinational firms or firms with international business strategies; firms that recruit professional employees from college campuses; and public and private organizations, including nongovernmental volunteer organizations (NGOs). Corporate-setting samples included the following: Senior members of management; heads of personnel or human resources departments; department directors; and institutions that offer career services. Academic-setting samples included the following: Senior decision makers or senior college/departmental leaders responsible for programs; directors of career services offices; senior faculty members involved in preparing students to enter the workplace, from at least two departments of each institution; deans /directors of international affairs (or similarly named) programs; students or recent graduates. Letters of introduction accompanied each survey or survey packet. Depending upon the respondent, the language of the letter varied slightly. For instance, deans of colleges 34

were sent five packets. They were asked to complete the survey themselves and also to identify a senior international faculty member and 3 students who graduated within the preceding 24 months to also complete the survey. A personnel director of a corporation was sent 4 survey packets and asked to complete the survey and also to identify 3 employees hired within the preceding 24 months to complete the survey. Table 1: Overview of Targeted Sample Respondents Corporate Academic Public Private NGO Public Private DecisionDecisionDecisionDecisionDecisionmakers/directors makers/directors makers/directors makers/departm makers/departm ent ent heads/deans/ heads/deans/seni senior faculty or faculty Senior Senior Senior Career services Career services management management management officers officers Personnel or Personnel or Personnel or Deans/ Deans/ human resources human resources human resources directors directors department department department heads/college heads/college heads/college recruiters recruiters recruiters Recent hires Recent hires Recent hires Students/ Students/ recent graduates recent graduates

35

Table 2: Overview of Stratified Sample Los Angeles Corporate Academic Fluor University Daniel of California at Los Angeles Warner Brothers

Toyota Motor Sales U.S.A

Deloitte & Touche

* University of Southern California California State University at Long Beach

New York Corporate Academic Booz State Allen & University Hamilton of New York at Stony Brook AT&T * New York University

Chicago Houston/Dallas Corporate Academic Corporate Academic Schlumber University Motorola University -ger of Texas at of Illinois Austin at Urbana – Champaig n Halliburto * Southern Household * n Methodist Internation University Geophysic University al of Chicago al Services

Miami Corporate Academic Catholic * Charities University (mailed to of Miami other offices as well) A.T. Florida Kearney, Atlantic Inc. University

General Electric

Mobil

University UARCO of Houston

Northern Illinois University

A.C. Internation al, Inc.

Florida Internation al University

Oil Company

* Texas Christian University

* De Paul University

Advisors Internation al, Inc.

* Barry University

* Loyola Hoechst Marymoun Celanese t University

City University of New York – City College * Columbia University

Baxter Healthcare

Los Angeles

New York NAFSA

Chicago

Houston/Dallas

Miami Twin Oil company, Inc. United States Holdings, Inc. 3D Internation al

* Private school Also included in the sample were the following organizations: Department of Labor (Washington, D.C.), State Department (Washington, D.C.), Peace Corps (Washington, D.C.), UNICEF, Rotary Club, Fulbright Association

Chapter 4 Data Analysis A Microsoft Access database was developed for the purpose of data entry and analysis. The data was analyzed 1) to finalize the list of competencies and skills considered to be valuable to each stakeholder group—businesses, universities, and graduates; and 2) to assess the relative importance of the competencies and skills thought to contribute to successful work performance in a globally active organization. The survey data was intended for analysis of comparison among the perspectives of employers, training institutions, and graduates regarding the relative importance of the validated competencies and skills. Such a data analysis would contribute to an understanding of real and perceptual gaps among the three populations. Descriptive statistics were generated for each skill and utilized for the analysis. As the data analysis illustrates, however, there was not appropriate representation from each target population to justify empirically sound comparisons. The overall response rate was approximately 13 percent and disproportionately represented institutions of higher education over corporations and recent graduates. The data were analyzed and interpreted by a team that included Institute psychometricians. The team relied heavily on both the “percent positive” measures and the standard deviations to interpret survey respondents’ rating recommendations. Each skill was reviewed separately and in relation to the other skills associated with the competency to achieve an individual rating recommendation based on the ensuing discussion and the survey data.

38

The ratings from the survey respondents are presented on the list of competencies and skills in Attachment C. Summary of Survey Respondents Demographics Table 3: Years of Experience with Current Organization

Table 4: Years of Experience Training for International Setting

Table 5: Years of Experience in Current Position*

Years 0-1 2-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 30 +

Years 0-1 2-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 30 + Blank

Years 0-1 2-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 30 + Blank

% 13 31 13 13 8 15 2 5

% 5 10 15 13 15 10 10 13 7

% 26 31 15 10 8 2 2 0 5

Table 6: Audiences Type

%

Universities Businesses Students NGO/Fed Gov/NFP

74 12 8 6

* Excludes the student respondents.

39

Validation Team After reviewing the survey responses and noting over-representation of the academic audience, project staff reassessed the criticality of the validation, emphasizing the necessity to ensure corporate representation. Corporate and business representatives, whether they are current or future international professionals, are the ultimate stakeholders for the products of this project. For the product to serve those stakeholders well, they must be an integral part of the development process. For several months, through a no-cost grant extension, project staff endeavored to organize a two-day meeting. When those efforts failed, attempts were made to organize a one-day meeting with an accelerated work agenda. During each attempt to organize a meeting, it became clear that most subject matter experts able to attend would be academic. Therefore, project staff acknowledged that such circumstances mandated a reworking of the validation process. Instead of bringing corporate subject matter experts to the validation process, took the process to the experts. Through inquiries to the Florida Chamber of Commerce and the Tampa Chamber of Commerce, staff contacted committees and councils (within Florida) whose membership consisted of corporate and business representatives with international interest. Groups, such as the Tampa Bay International Business Council, an organization serving the international business needs of the Greater Tampa Bay area, the Counselor Corps, and the Tampa Bay Women in International Trade, were contacted to request their input in the validation process. Some of the contacts were made through electronic mail (as is the case with the Counselor Corps) and others were made in person by requesting to be put on the agenda for regularly scheduled meetings. Project staff were able to present an overview of the 40

project to a formal meeting of a group of international business representatives approximately 42 members, with international interest and expertise. The members of this group made recommendations regarding the survey findings and changes to the list during the meeting and through follow-up phone calls and e-mails. Other efforts were made to solicit input from recent graduates and students interested in working in an international setting. While it could be said that this effort and resulting data is more qualitative than quantitative and not as empirically sound as might be desired, the information appears valid enough to substantiate the need for additional work on the knowledge and abilities required of successful international professionals. Specifically needed is a thorough validation of the list of competencies and skills (the instrument itself). Rather than providing support for the recommendations resulting from the survey data, the corporate and student input, received during the reworked validation process, contradicted some initial survey data. This initial survey data indicated an importance rating for each skill, including those so unimportant that they should be removed from the list altogether. The subsequent input from corporations and students indicated that some of the skills that were rated as “unimportant” were, in fact, quite important and that the list should remain intact until further efforts can be made for review and validation. This qualitative evidence indicates that the appropriate input from the corporate and business experts would yield recommendations different from the overrepresented academic survey respondents. In addition, the limited input from current students indicated that there may be a disconnect between what the academics believe are important competencies and skills for students to have and what students themselves 41

believe their strengths and abilities to be upon graduation. There is some indication that students were unsure of skills relating to work environment communication and management due to limited experience. Former students perceive their academic preparation as not parallel with what is required in the real world of work. Another disconnect indicated is one between what academics believe are important competencies and skills and what corporations and businesses seek when recruiting new employees. However, uneven validation of survey findings precludes making definitive conclusions and recommendations. This reveals again that the competencies and skills of academic programs are not congruent with the required competencies and skills of the corporate world. There was substantial feedback regarding the wording of the competencies and skills. Many respondents indicated that in many instances the wording is problematic (i.e., vague, too specific, too broad, etc.) and that even subtle changes made to the wording would drastically alter the rating. Additional input from the corporate stakeholders would help address this issue and would certainly benefit the list of competencies and skills. This study goes well beyond previous survey work because, to project staff’s knowledge, a list of competencies and skills for the global workforce has never been gathered, organized, or prioritized. For the first time, a foundation for building policy, planning, research, and evaluation will be made. Additionally, the marketing of high quality, well prepared graduates will enhance the economy by fulfilling the needs of the United States global workforce.

42

Chapter 5 Limitations The sample size, because it is a pilot study that takes place in designated states of our country, is a limitation to the research study. Furthermore, the study’s sample may not generalize to all United States corporations, universities, and colleges. The participant institutions were not selected on the basis of being representative of “businesses” or “universities” and “colleges” in general. Instead all participants were selected on the basis of being fully aware of, and actively responding to, the increasingly global economic environment. Therefore, the participants, by being willing to contribute their experiences and insights, have provided rich and detailed information about globalization from which other institutions, no doubt soon to be drawn into the international arena, can benefit. Because content analysis is used in this study, there are questions about validity issues related to analysis of existing statistics. Content analysis is limited to recorded communications and can raise issues of both reliability and validity. However, these issues can be resolved through logical reasoning and replication. Since a true validation of this instrument has not occurred, believe further efforts should be made to continue and perfect the work of the current project. Furthermore, because the study involves survey research, findings can be somewhat artificial, potentially superficial, and relatively inflexible. Using surveys to understand complex social processes, such as competencies and skills required in the international workforce, may provide an incomplete, oversimplified picture. In general, survey research is weak on validity but strong on reliability. 43

Although this project had limitations, the research combined with the research of Kedia and Daniel provide sound data for American academia and multi-national corporations to take into consideration when hiring a graduate from a four-year institution in the United States.

44

Chapter 6 Conclusions and Recommendations Some conclusions are immediately apparent, and recommendations thus become immediately transparent. First, further research should be conducted to validate the list of critical competencies and skills for persons starting careers in international settings. Because the survey’s language is crucial to an exact outcome of how multicultural competence is considered a requirement for new-graduate hires, the survey instrument should first be revised, the revisions reviewed, and the survey language re-written accordingly. This review process would reduce possible bias, or “slanting,” in word choice and phrasing that may tend to predetermine outcomes. Secondly, it may be necessary to augment survey data with personal interviews, preferably face-to-face. Time and resources permitting, it would be beneficial also to conduct interviews with human resource personnel, in varying sizes of corporations, in geographically diverse states. Such interviews would increase the findings’ representation and generalizability. Thirdly, despite the preponderance of academia’s returns, even more academicians should be asked to complete the survey. The rationale for further academic evaluation is complex. Project analysis tended to demonstrate a disconnect between a (the perspectives of the academic programs, and b) the perspectives of nonacademic international businesses and organizations and the graduate-employees. This situation is particularly troublesome since the academic programs surveyed have a particular interest in training students for the international workforce. In other words, it is probable that entities of theory and training need guidance from entities of praxis. Thus, proper 45

validation of the list of competencies and skills would serve a dual focus: Expanding the survey would draw the attention of all stakeholders to desirability and economic value of undertaking more research in international training and employability. An expanded replication of this effort would provide increased generalization both nationally and globally. The survey’s expansion would also increase knowledge and awareness in an area critical to our country’s future prosperity. Fourthly and more specifically, to determine upward mobility related to international training, the same populations should be surveyed again in two years, and perhaps at ensuring intervals, to generate the comparisons a longitudinal study provides. Next, a thoroughly validated list of international competencies and skills would provide feedback to the training institutions with international programs in place. Additionally, such a list would be invaluable to training institutions not currently offering international programs: As globalization continues, more colleges and universities will initiate programs, most likely emulating those programs already in place. Obviously, the disconnect between academic training theory and corporate praxis is likely to produce negative outcomes for United States’ participation in the global political economy. As the RAND study recommends, the academic and corporate communities should work together to create venues for sharing investigative and operational results more broadly and to align their policies, wherever feasible, to meet national goals and objectives in globalized areas of endeavor. Large-scale, inter-institutional relationships revealed in this research are daily increasing in significance for the United States. Therefore, those relationships must be queried, researched, validated, and strengthened,

46

so United States citizens can continue to enjoy our well deserved reputation for getting the job done. Recommendations for additional phase(s) of the AIEA study are to: 1) enlarge and refine the empirical and utilitarian knowledge base underlying the range and depth of these generic competencies and skills; 2) form clusters of competencies and skills needed for various types of positions; 3) communicate generic and clustered competencies and skills to post-secondary educational programs and to public and private employers, so that they will collaborate to train and hire well prepared professionals to work in international settings; 4) increase the degree and intensity of input from key stakeholders such as the business community. Furthermore, the project’s limitations (or reasons for certain shortcomings) point to certain recommendations. The international efforts of U.S. companies currently represent an important percentage of their businesses, and internationalization is expected to increase during the next decade. Eighty percent of the companies believe their overall business would increase if their staff had more and better international expertise. Certainly, companies will place greater emphasis on international competence among management and employees in the next ten years. In response to increasing globalization and competition, markets for U.S. products and services are expanding at a rate not evidenced in recent history. Knowledge, information, and communications are also increasing geometrically in response to increased demand for goods and services. Mergers and acquisitions, with their restructuring and consolidation in rapidly changing markets forces due to international competition, are driving changes in the United States workforce. The rate at which businesses can adjust often determines their survival. 47

Because of changing market forces, the nature of knowledge, information, and education for employees of United States firms has changed. Corporations, agencies, and school districts (who train future employees) hire their employers from universities. As a major supplier of employees to these corporations and agencies, colleges must understand the types of students who will become successful top executives, managers and employees in these firms. Between 93 and 96 percent of the United States labor force works for large organizations, corporations, and government agencies. However, the methods by which universities generally gather information related to industry and agency needs are often non-systematic, incomplete, and sporadic. Furthermore, as seen in the AIEA study, the leaders of multinational corporations are extremely busy, and it is often difficult to obtain accurate information from them, because they do not have the time to invest in providing it. The researcher must find a method to approach this group in a manner that is as expeditious as possible, for example, getting on a luncheon agenda, presenting ideas for 10 minutes, and asking for immediate feedback. Information must be presented to corporate stakeholders in as straightforward a manner as possible. Acquiring information about the changes impacting corporations, how corporations are changing, how their needs for employees are changing, and how their future employees will differ from present employees is essential. An appreciation for cross-cultural differences is the most important international skill sought by companies for both professional staff and line management employees, closely followed by a global perspective. Management personnel also need an understanding of local markets/business practices and socio-economic and political knowledge of the nations with which they interact. U.S. universities should have a stronger emphasis on 48

integrating international and cross-cultural topics into all curricula, since these skills seem to be universally needed by business, even at the entry level. International skills are more important at the management level than at the entry level in terms of hiring, reassignment, and/or promotion decisions. At the management level, there is an even greater need for international understanding, and personnel also need to have more market-specific knowledge. Therefore, business administration and executive programs should focus more on understanding the business and marketing issues relating to international business. While foreign language skills received the lowest average rating in importance as a skill sought by companies, about 20% of the companies rated foreign language skills to be of great importance. Similarly 25% of the firms believe that international work experience is of great importance. United States firms rely more on in-house and consulting firm providers than on universities for training programs to promote international competence among their employees. Universities need to publicize their executive training and other services available to businesses, as many businesses do not realize that the universities can be a resource to them in this area. The two most important areas in international business education that participating companies believe should be improved are international emphasis in business school curricula and more emphasis on geography in its broadest sense. The results of this research clearly indicate an increasing need for international business education in the United States. Indeed, with the projected growth of international operations, additional international business education programs will need 49

to be developed, particularly programs with a focus on Asia. At the very least, all business graduates need to have an appreciation for cross-cultural differences and a global perspective. Additional training programs, both degree and non-degree, are also needed to provide management personnel with the higher levels of knowledge for addressing the competitive challenges of the global business environment. As various kinds of business organizations increase their global presence, specialists with the knowledge and ability to succeed must continue to increase their understanding of the multiple cultures in which their organizations may operate or market. More, and more thorough, efforts to define, describe, understand, and respond effectively to issues and practices across cultures will be required. Global perspectives in both practice and research must inform United States discourse regarding our educational system, our graduates, and our international workforce. Only through a global lens can we glimpse, in the future international political economy, a vital and burgeoning United States presence. Based on current literature and the findings from this study, the design below is being recommended as a prototype of the competencies and skills required for effective performance in the international global environment. These international competencies and skills should be attractive to the human resources managers who will choose the resume with international competencies and skills as well as core competencies and skills. As businesses increase their global presence, specialists with competencies and skills for coping in a globalized world must increase their understanding of multiple cultures in which the organization might operate or market. A greater devotion to describing and 50

understanding issues and practices across cultures will be necessary. Greater global thinking in our discussions in practice and research regarding education, graduation, and the multi-corporate workforce will enhance the international political economy and make it easier for people to communicate worldwide. Figure 6: International Competencies and skills Target

International Skills and Competencies Target

Core Skills and Competencies Team Building Negotiation Leadership Critical Thinking Judgment Listening Communication

Clearly this research demonstrates the criticality of students receiving a well-rounded education that includes skills interesting to the corporate workforce, such as--finance, marketing, international business, accounting, economics, professional and technical writing, and business administration. Furthermore, students should acquire the following skills, as also shown in Figure 3: negotiation skills, conflict resolution, team building, oral and written presentation, leadership, and exerting influence, by applying them to the above mentioned globalization concepts in the content of the fields of study listed in the matrix. The outer 51

periphery of skills is designed to be a determining factor for the human resources personnel in the decision making process. Competencies and skills in the globalized world should be taught in the general education fields of study. These globalization concepts are: perspective consciousness, state of planet awareness, cross-cultural awareness, knowledge of global dynamics, and awareness of the consequences of human choices. Undergraduate students should acquire the following skills: negotiation, conflict resolution, team building, oral, written, presentation, leadership, and exerting influence, by applying them to the above mentioned globalization concepts in the content of the fields of study listed in the matrix. These competencies and skills are identified by businesses and the corporate world as being required of employees and prospective employees. It is clear that the competencies and skills of academic programs are still not congruent with the required competencies and skills of the corporate world. Furthermore, it is difficult, indeed, near impossible, to recruit corporate representatives for one- and two-day meetings in Tampa, Florida. Therefore, corporate input must be solicited through alternative methods. The resulting work products provide, for the first time, a valuable foundation for policy, planning, research, evaluation, and marketing for selecting and training international employees. Well prepared higher education graduates will enhance the United States economy and become our country's critical global workforce. In addition, the data from the study is used to analyze, compare, and contrast the perspectives of employers, training institutions, and graduates about the relative importance of the validated competencies and skills. This analysis of perspectives sketches both real and perceptual gaps among these three populations. 52

The AIEA study should also be expanded to delve into why multinational corporations responded only moderately about the importance of international education. This is especially important considering information received after the AIEA study: Kedia and Daniel found that new interest has arisen in training U.S. workers hired by multinational corporations. (Kedia and Daniels, 2003) Bear in mind, U.S. corporations housed in other nations often hire nationals to run their firms. This can happen because U.S. entrepreneurs and companies and are less concerned about making mistakes and more concerned about creativity than some nation’s business cultures. Therefore, they are willing to risk the advantages of foreign nationals, or to put it another way—advantages of natives who thoroughly understand their own countries—running their international entities. An argument could be made that this strategy is a globalized way of thinking as compared to the Japanese system, for instance, which has created a stagnant, suffering economy. The Japanese would be very uncomfortable hiring foreign nationals to run their corporations, and Japan has been mired in low growth for a decade. Created by the Japanese, benevolent paternalism, turned out to be a bust in energizing the entrepreneurship, or “creative juices,” of the Japanese people. Benevolent paternalism and globalization expose the Achilles heel of the Japanese economy, namely the inward orientation of most of Japan's industrial establishment. In exchange for the security of lifetime employment at a giant kiretsu, Japanese management and employees are willing to risk the failure of businesses to grow, gain experience, and earn more money. (Leander, 2000) To sum up, solid recommendations will be made for expanding this study to enlarge and refine the empirical knowledge base that underlies the range of these generic 53

competencies and skills. The recommendations herein for the job competencies and skills needed for post-secondary preparation programs and for both public and private international employers have the purpose of building a well prepared United States labor pool that will enhance a highly politicized, international economy.

54

The List of Competencies and Skills — Contextual Basis Uses of the International Competencies and Skills Audiences for Products Three interrelated audiences may find this work useful: •

Employers (public, private, NGO human resource/management)



Postsecondary faculty teaching in bachelor’s degree programs that emphasize preparation for international careers



Recent graduates of such bachelor’s degree programs Research and Evaluation

Competencies and skills represent the independent variables for entry-level employment, which is viewed as the dependent variable for research and evaluation practices. Employment in the Public or Private Sectors or with Non-Governmental Organizations Screening, hiring, promotion, training, formative and summative evaluation, and related resource management functions: •

Education Postsecondary



Staff development



Teacher education (pre-service and in-service)



Developing “world citizenship” skills for postsecondary students



Policy, Budgeting, and Planning

55

Key Terms The expression international setting has been operationally defined as a domestic (United States) or foreign (non-United States) cross-sector work setting where a critical part of the employee’s assignment (as determined by the employer) entails international or intercultural work with foreign persons or other foreign entities; or a knowledge of one or more other cultures to fulfill successfully assigned duties and responsibilities. The public sector is operationally defined as a governmental or publicly funded section of society responsible for providing goods or services. The private sector is operationally defined as the business section of society. A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a voluntary organization with the purpose of providing goods or services to the public. The competencies and skills are organized using these headings and categories. I. Intercultural competencies: International mindset – develop attitudes that support your international strategy Knowledge of Interpersonal Context Knowledge of Societal Context: Cultural diversity, cross-cultural awareness, foreign society, customs, and culture II. Understanding National and World Issues Knowledge of One’s Own Biases, Values, and Issues Knowledge of One’s Own Country’s Biases and Issues Knowledge of the World’s Biases and Issues: International perspective Knowledge of Historical Developments throughout the World Knowledge of World Geography, including Maps and Globes 56

Knowledge of Economic Systems III. Language Skills Knowledge of How to Use English (Your Own Language) in Other Cultures and How to Use a Foreign Language in the Native Country IV. Resiliency and Coping Skills: Individual-Oriented Knowledge of Personal Management/Resolve: Personal traits, personal management skills Knowledge of Communication Skills Knowledge of Effective Decision-Making: Making good judgments Knowledge of Solution-Oriented Practices: Problem identification, information gathering, idea evaluation, and conflict resolution V. Team Work and Leadership Skills/Traits: Group-Oriented Knowledge of Group Dynamics Knowledge of Organizational Effectiveness and Leadership VI. Governance and Strategy: The organization’s vision, strategy, structure, culture, and people Knowledge of the Organization and its International Position VII. Technology Knowledge of Computer Software Knowledge of the Use of Current Computer-Related Technologies in Society

57

References ACE. American Council on Education. Internationalization of United States Higher Education. Preliminary Status Report, 2000. AIEA. Association of International Education Educators. An Agenda for Internationalizing America's Education System and its Citizenry. Working Agenda. Ishington, D.C., 2001. AIEA. Association of International Education Educators. A Research Agenda for the Internationalization of Higher Education in the United States. Ishington, D.C., 1995. Amin, S. Capitalism in the Age of Globalization. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Zed Books, 1997. Aronowitz, S. and H.A. Giroux. Postmodern Education, Politics, and Culture: A Social Criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991. Back, K.J. and D.M. Davis. "Internationalization of Higher Education in Australia." In Strategies for Internationalization of Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States of America. H. de Wit, ed. Amsterdam: European Association for International Education, 121-152, 1995. Ball, D.A., & McCulloch, W.H 1993. “The views of American multinational CEOs on internationalized business education for prospective employees”. Journal International Business Studies, Second Quarter 383-391. Becker, W. and D. Lewis, eds. The Economics of American Higher Education. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992. Bennell P. and Pearce, T. “The internationalisation of higher education: exporting education to developing and transnational economies.”23 (2003) 215-232. International Journal of Educational Development. Bikson, T.K. & Law, S.A. 1994. Global preparedness and human resources: College and corporate perspectives. Santa Monica,k CA: RAND Blackmore, Jill. "Globalization: A Useful Concept for Feminists Rethinking Theory and Strategies in Education?" In Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives. N. Burbles and C. Torres, eds. New York: Routledge Press, 133-156, 2000. 58

Bremer, L. and A. Scholten. “Recognition of Credits in the Framework of SOCRATES, A Dutch Case Study." Journal of Studies in Higher Education 3(2): 89-102, 1999. Burbles, N. and C. Torres, eds. Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives, New York: Routledge Press, 2000. Castells, M. The Rise of the Network Society. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1997. Champlin, D. and P. Olson. “The Impact of Globalization on United States Labor Markets: Redefining the Debate.” Journal of Economic Issues, 33: 443-51, 1999. Chandler, A. "Funding International Programs." International Educator (NY), VIII(2): 20-30, 1999. Cogan, J. and R. Derricott. Citizenship for the 21st Century: An International Perspective on Education. London: Kogan Page, 1997. Davis, T., ed. Open Doors. New York: Institute of International Education, 1999-2000. Day. S. and M. Koorland. "The Future Isn't What It Used to Be: Student Competencies for the 21st Century.” Contemporary Education 69: 34-40, 1997. Desruisseaux, P. “As Exchanges Lose a Political Rationale, Their Role Is Debated." Chronicle of Higher Education. A52-A53, 2000. Developing the Global Workforce: Insights for Colleges and Corporations. CPC Foundation/RAND Corporation Report. College Placement Council Inc., 1994. DeWit, H. and H. Callan. "Internationalization of Higher Education in Europe." Strategies for Internationalization of Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Australia, Canada, Europe and the United States of America. H. de Wit, ed. Amsterdam: European Association for International Education, 67-98, 1995. Dunstan, P. "Internationalizing the Student Experience: How Serious Are We?" International Educator (NY), X(1): 34-39, 2001. Friedman, T. The Lexus and the Olive Tree. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1999. Giroux, H. and P. McLaren. "Schooling as a Form of Cultural Politics: Towards a Pedagogy of and for Difference." In Critical Pedagogy: the State and Cultural Struggle. Albany: State University of New York Press, 125-151, 1989. 59

Giroux, H. Border Crossings: Cultural Workers and the Politics of Education. New York: Routledge Press, 1992. Green, A. Education, Globalization, and the Nation State. New York: St. Martins Press, 1997. Green, M. Transforming Higher Education. Phoenix, AZ: ACE, 1997. Groennings, S. “The Fulbright Program in the Global Knowledge Economy: The Nation’s Neglected Comparative Advantage.” Journal of Studies in International Education 1(1): 95-105, 1997. Heginbothm, S. "Rethinking Perspectives on Educational Exchanges with Japan." Journal of Studies in International Education 1(1): 79-95, 1997. Held, D., A. McGrew, D. Goldblatt, and J. Perraton. Global Transformations: Politics, Economics, and Culture. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999. Jarowski, J. & Scharmer C. Leadership in the New Economy Sensing and Actualizing Emerging Futures. Generon Consulting. Beverly, Masachusetts. Interview Project, 2000. Johnson, M. "The Cutting Edge of Foreign Policy." International Educator (NY), X (1): 2-4, 2001. Hellrigel, D. Solcum, J.W. Jr. & Woodman, R.W. 1999 Organizational Behavior. Sixth edition. St. Paul., MN West Publishing Company. Hoffman, R.C. & Gopinath, C. 1994. The importance of international business to strategic agenda of U.S. CEOs. Journal of International Business Studies. Third Quarater: 625-637. Kaye, B. “The Kept-on Workforce.” Training and Development 52: 32-4, 1998. Kedia, B. & Daniel, S. “U.S. Business Needs for Employees with International Expertise” Needs for a Global Challenge Conference. 2003. Kim, H. "Open Doors 2000: International Student Mobility at the Millennium." International Educator (NY), X (1): 29-33, 2001.

60

Kobrin, S. 1984. International Expertise in American Business. New York: Institute of International Education. Leander, Tom. CFO Asia –March 2000. http://www.cfoasia.com/archives/20000.02-31.html McCarthy, J. "Continuing and Emerging National Needs for the Internationalization of Undergraduate Education." In International Education in the New Global Era: Proceedings of a National Policy Conference on the Higher Education Act, Title VI and Fulbright-Hays Programs. N. John, A. Hawkins, C. Haro, M. Kazanjian, G. Merkx, and D. Wiley, eds. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998. McLaren, P. Revolutionary Multiculturalism: Pedagogies of Dissent for a New Millennium. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997. McWilliam, A., D. Van Fleet and P. Wright. “Strategic Management of Human Resources for Global Competitive Advantage.” Journal of Business Strategies, 18(2): 1, Spring 2001. Merkx, G. “Hearing Before the Subcommittee on International Security Proliferation and Federal Services of the Senate Committee on Government Affairs.” On the State of Foreign Language Capabilities in National Security and the Federal Government, Part II (Statement), Ishington D.C., 2001. Morrow, R. and C. Torres. "The State, Globalization, and Education Policy." In Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives. N. Burbles and C. Torres, eds. New York: Routledge Press, 27-56, 2000. Moxon, R., O’Shea, E., Brown, M. & Escher, C. 1997 Nehrt. L. C., 1977. Business and International Education. International Education Project. American Council on Education. Washington D.C., Occasional Paper No. 4. Noyelle, T. J. “Market and Job Segmentation in the New Economy.” Chapter 6 in Beyond Industrial Dualism: Market and Job Segmentation in the New Economy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987. Noyelle, T. J., ed. “Business Services: Accounting, Management Consulting, and Computer Software.” Chapter 6 in Skills, Wages, and Productivity in the Service Sector. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990.

61

Noyelle, T. J. “Toward a New Labor Market Segmentation.” Chapter 9 in Beyond Industrial Dualism: Market and Job Segmentation in the New Economy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987. Owens, R. Organizational Behavior in Education, 5th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1995. Peters, M., J. Marshall and P. Fitzsimmons. “Managerialism and Education Policy in a Global Context: Foucault, Neoliberalism, and the Doctrine of Self-Management.” In Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives. N. Burbles and C. Torres, eds. New York: Routledge Press, 2000. Porter, L.W. McKibbin., L.E. 1988. Management Education and Development. New York: McGraw Hill. Porras, J. and Silvers, R. Organisation, Development and Transformation. 1991. http:/www.york.ac.uk/~psyc4/Summaries/change.html. Regeringskansliet. The 1994 Curriculum for the Non-Compulsory School System. Stockholm, Sweden: Ministry of Education and Science, 1999a. Regeringskansliet. The 1994 Curriculum for the Compulsory School, the Pre-School Class and the After-School Center. Stockholm, Sweden: Ministry of Education and Science, 1999b. Reynolds, J and Rice G. 1988. American Education for International Business. Management International Review; 28 (3) 48-57 Schechter, M. “Internationalizing the University and Building Bridges Across Disciplines.” In Internationalizing Business Education: Meeting the Challenge. S.T. Cavusgil, 29-40, 1993. Schoorman, D. “The Pedagogical Implications of Diverse Conceptualizations of Internationalization: A United States Based Case Study." Journal of Studies in International Education 3(2): 19-46, 1999. Stoer, S., L. Cortesao and J. Blackmore. "Multiculturalism and Education Policy in a Global Context (European Perspectives)." In Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives. N. Burbles and C. Torres, eds. New York: Routledge Press, 253-274, 2000.

62

Swiarianski, L.A., M. Briethbrorde and J. Murphy. Educating the Global Village: Including the Young Child in the World. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999. Suchman, L. A. “Communicative Resources.” Chapter 5 in Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human-Machine Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Toffler, A. Future Shock. New York: Random House, 1970. Webb. M, Mayer, K. Ploeche. V., and Allen L. 1999. Internationalization of American Business Education. Management International Review. Toffler, A. The Third Wave. New York: Bantam Books, 1980. Toffler, A. and H. Toffler. Creating a New Civilization: The Politics of the Third Wave. Atlanta: Turner, 1994. The Coalition for International Education. "March 2000 Minutes." "Toward an International Education Policy." http://www:nafsa.org/int-ed/22200.html Webb. M., Mayer K & Allen 1999 Internaitonalization of American Business Education. Mangagment International Review, 39., 379-397.

63

Appendices

64

Attachment A: Preliminary List of Competencies and Skills What a recent graduate needs to be able to know and do in order to secure an entrylevel, professional employment position in an international setting (at home or abroad).

Intercultural competencies: Global mindset – develop attitudes that support your global strategy A.

Knowledge of Interpersonal Capacity 1. Demonstrate the qualities of tolerance, sensitivity to others, and tact 2. Demonstrate open-mindedness and curiosity with respect to other countries and cultures 3. Demonstrate pride in one’s own culture and accomplishments 4. Recognize and respect individual and cultural differences 5. Recognize issues that may be sensitive to other cultures and peoples and respect their beliefs 6. Demonstrate willingness to adapt to others’ standards of behavior: political, cultural, social, and religious 7. Understand how culture and politics influence the business practices and business ethics of other societies 8. Demonstrate appropriate international etiquette in situations with business colleagues and clients such as greeting, introducing, thanking, taking leave, negotiating, and confirming contracts, socializing, paying, and receiving compliments, and gift-giving 65

9. Demonstrate the ability to constantly look for the big picture or multiple possibilities for any event or occurrence

B.

Knowledge of Societal Capacity: Cultural diversity, cross-cultural awareness, foreign society, customs, and culture 1. Identify the basic beliefs of the world’s major religions 2. Describe the historical context, development, and conflicts growing out of the interaction of the world’s religions 3. Define culture 4. Describe ways in which people adapt culturally to different physical environments 5. Define cultural regions, including classification of the dominant cultural traits or features of major regions 6. Determine cultural factors influencing population growth 7. Identify cultural diffusion 8. Identify cultural differences that may lead to obstacles in communication 9. Knowledge of social class and socio-economic variables and their impacts upon 10. societies and individuals 11. Understanding American and World Issues

66

A.

Knowledge of One’s Own Biases and Issues 1. Demonstrate flexibility while retaining the stability of one’s own identity and values 2. Develop a global mindset that is flexible and comfortable with ambiguity and chaos 3. Identify one’s own biases and attitudes 4. Fully understand one’s own cultural conditioning, values, and assumptions, as well as their impact on the organization’s culture 5. Examine one’s own assumptions about other cultures 6. Behave in a manner that demonstrates knowledge of and respect for other countries 7. Subjugate the need to impose one’s own structure and ideas on others 8. Understand the impact that one’s own values and beliefs have on his/her perception of world events 9. Assess one’s own knowledge and skills to think about and act on global concerns 10. Demonstrate a personal commitment to social justice, equity, and stewardship on an environmental level 11. Recognize diversity as a resource to be leveraged

B.

Knowledge of One’s Own Country’s Biases and Issues 1. Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of Western liberal democratic views on one’s perceptions of the world 67

2. Demonstrate an understanding of the history of the United States’ international relations and experience 3. Demonstrate an understanding of United States customs 4. Demonstrate an understanding of United States culture 5. Demonstrate an understanding of United States society 6. Recognize the functions of the United States government (local, state, and national) 7. Recognize major components of the United States governmental system 8. Define basic principles of the United States Constitution: e.g., federalism, separation of powers, protections of civil liberties, due process 9. Identify rights and responsibilities of United States citizens 10. Demonstrate knowledge of comparative political theories and systems 11. Demonstrate knowledge of the purpose of diplomacy and foreign policy 12. Demonstrate an understanding of current United States policies towards international relations

C.

Knowledge of the World’s Biases and Issues: Global Perspective 1. Understand the day-to-day realities, political environment, and current events of other cultures and peoples 2. Demonstrate knowledge of principle periods of literature, architecture, art, etc., including major or representative works 3. Identify sources of information on world events 4. Analyze critically sources of information on world events 68

5. Demonstrate a knowledge of global issues such as poverty, population growth, and global warming 6. Reflect on, and compare, a variety of perspectives on world historical events 7. Understand the interconnections between local and global issues

D.

Knowledge of historical developments throughout the world 1. Identify political, economic, and religious reasons for colonization 2. Recognize the influence of the American physical environment on the development of political, economic, and religious institutions 3. Understand the impact of historical events, culture, political structures, and geography on world events 4. Demonstrate knowledge of prehistory and ancient civilizations including the non-Western world 5. Demonstrate knowledge of classical civilizations including the nonWestern world 6. Demonstrate knowledge of the major periods of history 7. Demonstrate knowledge of revolutionary movements 8. Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics and growth of European nationalism 9. Identify major contemporary world issues and trends 10. Explain the international relationships that developed in 19th century Europe 69

11. Recognize the impact of imperialism on the contemporary world 12. Recognize the role and limitations of the United Nations 13. Demonstrate knowledge of historical trends on other continents 14. Demonstrate knowledge of the impact of the world’s great religions on social, cultural, and political realities in society 15. Integrate knowledge of Asian, Central and South American, Soviet, Russian, and African history

E.

Knowledge of world geography, including maps and globes: 1. Demonstrate general knowledge of the seven continents 2. Recognize examples of how geography has affected agrarian and industrial economies 3. Assess geographic reasons why specified countries join alliances or remain neutral

F.

Knowledge of economic systems: 1. Demonstrate knowledge of global economic concepts 2. Compare the United States economy to other economies 3. Recognize the characteristics of mixed economies 4. Demonstrate knowledge of educational, social, health, and environmental influences on economic development 5. Determine the role of the government in regulation and protection 6. Demonstrate knowledge of the laws of supply and demand 70

7. Identify financial institutions, instruments, and markets 8. Identify the functions and tools of the Federal Reserve System 9. Identify the functions and characteristics of the Eurodollar 10. Analyze barriers to trade and their effects 11. Analyze exchange rates and demonstrate ability to convert from one currency to another 12. Identify examples of global economic interdependence 13. Analyze economic growth and development 14. Identify the role of transnational (multinational) corporations in the world economy

71

Language skills A.

Knowledge of how to use English (your own language) in other cultures and how to 1. Use a foreign language in the native country 2. Adapt use of English to the formality of the situation and the fluency of the business partner in international business and social settings 3. Speak an additional language(s) proficiently enough to understand and be understood in everyday conversation -- understand a newspaper, technical reports, and everyday instructions (e.g., using a telephone) 4. Demonstrate ability to read and write in a foreign language

Resiliency and Coping Skills: Individual-oriented A. Knowledge of personal management/resolve: personal traits, personal management skills 1. Demonstrate integrity within one’s own culture 2. Demonstrate ability to manage one’s own stress levels 3. Demonstrate ability to practice good self care 4. Demonstrate assertiveness 5. Demonstrate diligence 6. Demonstrate self-confidence 7. Demonstrate self-discipline 8. Demonstrate self-awareness 9. Demonstrate enthusiasm 10. Demonstrate ability to motivate oneself 72

11. Demonstrate ability to set meaningful goals 12. Demonstrate ability to handle problems 13. Demonstrate dependability 14. Demonstrate ability to be flexible and adaptable 15. Demonstrate commitment to quality work 16. Demonstrate ability to self-evaluate personal strengths and weaknesses (awareness of personal skills and abilities) 17. Demonstrate ability to evaluate how personal strengths, values, and interests relate to the occupation 18. Demonstrate ability to discern how other people react, positively or negatively, toward oneself 19. Demonstrate ability to adjust actions in relation to others’ actions (coordination) 20. Demonstrate understanding of illegal, physically abusive, and violent actions 21. Demonstrate methods for handling challenging situations under difficult circumstances 22. Demonstrate ability to manage multiple priorities (multitask) 23. Demonstrate psychological preparedness for the situations one might encounter in an international setting 24. Identify and respond to one’s own stage of adaptation and culture shock 25. Take initiative to facilitate social interaction 26. Demonstrate amenability toward training 73

B.

Knowledge of communication skills 1. Practice good listening skills (learn to speak less, listen more) 2. Demonstrate knowledge of Standard English: correct grammar, organization, writing strategy, sentence structure, and punctuation required for writing or editing reports. 3. Identify and apply knowledge of the various composing processes, including but not limited to prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, proofreading, and publishing strategies. 4. Demonstrate ability to express ideas orally 5. Demonstrate ability to understand verbal instructions 6. Demonstrate understanding of written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents (reading comprehension) 7. Demonstrate ability to communicate effectively with others in writing as indicated by the needs of the audience (writing) 8. Demonstrate ability to listen to what other people are saying and asking questions as appropriate (active listening) 9. Demonstrate ability to understand the impact of different types of media on individuals and society 10. Address communication challenges in reaching a global membership by understanding the audience, the media, the message in both local and global contexts 11. Understand the necessity of tailoring messages to reflect cultural context and difference 74

C.

Knowledge of effective decision-making: Making good judgments 1. Demonstrate ability to make appropriate decisions 2. Demonstrate ability for high functioning in a specific role, even if the role is experiencing change and fluctuation (4) 3. Demonstrate ability for high functioning in settings experiencing organizational change (4) 4. Demonstrate process thinking rather than function thinking (4) 5. Demonstrate effective judgment and decision-making skills by weighing the relative costs and benefits of a potential action 6. Demonstrate ability to evaluate the likely success of an idea in relation to the demands of the situation

D.

Knowledge of solution-oriented practices: Problem identification, information gathering, idea evaluation, and conflict resolution) 1. Demonstrate ability to listen to others and ask clarifying questions as appropriate 2. Demonstrate knowledge of how to find information and identify essential information (information gathering) 3. Know how to and be willing to find information on another society 4. Demonstrate problem solving skills including problem identification solution implementation 5. Demonstrate ability to problem-solve issues related to one’s professional competence in different cultural contexts 75

6. Demonstrate knowledge of critical thinking skills 7. Demonstrate ability to make effective use of academic knowledge on the job 8. Demonstrate use of logic and analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches (critical thinking) 9. Demonstrate ability to balance organization’s needs against technical solutions 10. Demonstrate ability to resolve conflict 11. Demonstrate ability to negotiate, manage conflict, and reach resolutions across cultural and class divisions

Team Work and Leadership Skills/Traits: Group-oriented A.

Knowledge of group dynamics: 1. Demonstrate leadership skills in diverse situations 2. Demonstrate ability to discern effective group output 3. Demonstrate ability to understand assignments within a group context 4. Demonstrate ability to recognize signals from others in a group setting 5. Demonstrate understanding of relationships within a working group environment 6. Demonstrate ability to form a new group and develop quickly into a working team 7. Work as an equal with people of diverse backgrounds with unbiased openmindedness 76

8. Develop the ability to collaborate instead of compete 9. Develop and effectively leverage multicultural teams across cultures 10. Demonstrate ability to understand and manage intercultural group dynamics, including cross-cultural dynamics of consensus building

B.

Knowledge of Organizational Effectiveness and Leadership: 1. Demonstrate ability to understand how the organization works 2. Demonstrate ability to understand how the actions of individuals affect the organization and its strategic objectives and vice versa 3. Demonstrate ability to determine forces and factors that interfere with the organization’s ability to accomplish its tasks 4. Demonstrate ability for team building 5. Demonstrate ability to lead with a global mindset 6. Demonstrate ability to explore and learn actively from culturally different styles of leadership

Governance and Strategy: Globalize the organization’s vision, strategy, structure, culture, and people A.

Knowledge the organization and its global position 1. Demonstrate an understanding of the organization’s global strategic vision (the vision should be clearly defined, understood, communicated, and accepted throughout the organization)

77

2. Demonstrate an understanding of the evolutionary stages of globalization, including the difference between being a domestic, international, and global association, vis a vis governance 3. Demonstrate an understanding of cultural contexts for volunteerism outside the organization’s home country 4. Demonstrate ability to recognize the need for global policy development (guiding internal governance, strategy, operations, etc.) 5. Demonstrate ability to monitor and analyze demographic, social, and scientific trends worldwide 6. Define terminology at all levels of the organization to avoid cross-cultural misunderstandings 7. Demonstrate an understanding of the global context and cultural norms of potential members, customers, partners, and other stakeholders

Technology A.

Knowledge of computer software: 1. Demonstrate ability to use Identify the features of productivity software: word processors, spreadsheets, databases, desktop publishing, graphics, multimedia, and electronic mail (1) (4)

B.

Knowledge of the use of current computer-related technologies in society: 2. Recognize the impact of computer technology on society 3. Identify the uses of telecommunications in society 78

4. Identify positive and/or negative effects of computer technology on a global society 5. Identify ethical and legal issues related to computer technology 6. Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of culture and technology on learning

79

Attachment B: Survey Instrument Please complete the following information about yourself. Name (optional):____________________________________________________ City (of employment):________________________________________________ State (of employment):_______________________________________________ Affiliation (company or university name):____________________________________________________________ Department or college name: __________________________________________________________________ If recent graduate, name of program of study, college/university: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Current position or title: __________________________________________________________________ Length of time in current position: __________________________________________________________________ Length of time with current organization: __________________________________________________________________ Total length of time either working in or preparing others for work in an international setting: ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 80

Phone number (optional, would only be used for follow-up purpose): ______________________________ Email address (optional, would only be used for follow-up purpose): _______________________________

The next two pages provide some additional background about the project and survey (purpose of list, audience, limitations, assumptions, etc.).

The actual survey begins on page 6 ; however, at the end of the survey, we will ask you to respond to a few questions about this “introductory” material.

81

Very Important

Important

Intercultural competencies: International mindset – develop attitudes that support your international strategy A. Knowledge of Interpersonal Context Demonstrate the qualities of tolerance, sensitivity to others, and tact Demonstrate openmindedness and curiosity with respect to other countries and cultures Demonstrate pride in one’s own culture and accomplishments Recognize and respect individual and cultural differences Recognize issues that may be sensitive to other cultures and peoples; respect their beliefs Demonstrate willingness to adapt to others’ standards of behavior: political, cultural, social, and religious 82

Somewhat Important

Not Very Important

Delete from List

Understand how culture and politics influence the business practices and business ethics of other societies Demonstrate appropriate international etiquette in situations with business colleagues and clients such as greeting, introducing, thanking, taking leave, negotiating, and confirming contracts, socializing, paying and receiving compliments, and giftgiving Demonstrate the ability to look constantly for the big picture or multiple possibilities for any event or occurrence B. Knowledge of Societal Context: Cultural diversity, cross-cultural awareness, foreign society, customs, and culture Identify the basic beliefs of the world’s major religions Describe the historical context, development, and conflicts growing out of the interaction of the world’s religions Define culture

83

Describe ways in which people adapt culturally to different physical environments Define cultural regions, including classification of the dominant cultural traits or features of major regions Determine cultural factors influencing population growth Identify cultural diffusion Identify cultural differences that may lead to obstacles in communication Knowledge of social class and socioeconomic variables and their impacts upon societies and individuals Understanding National and World Issues A. Knowledge of One’s Own Biases, Values, and Issues Demonstrate flexibility while retaining the stability of one’s own identity and values Develop an international mindset that is flexible and comfortable with ambiguity and chaos Identify one’s own biases and attitudes

84

Fully understand one’s own cultural conditioning, values, and assumptions, as well as their impact on the organization’s culture Examine one’s own assumptions about other cultures Behave in a manner that demonstrates knowledge of and respect for other countries Subjugate the need to impose one’s own structure and ideas on others Understand the impact that one’s own values and beliefs have on perception of world events Assess one’s own knowledge and skills to think about and act on international concerns Demonstrate a personal commitment to social justice, equity, and stewardship on an environmental level Recognize diversity as a resource to be leveraged B. Knowledge of One’s Own Country’s Biases and Issues

85

Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of Western liberal democratic views on one’s perceptions of the world Demonstrate an understanding of the history of the United States’ international relations and experience Demonstrate an understanding of United States customs Demonstrate an understanding of United States culture Demonstrate an understanding of United States society Recognize the functions of the United States government (local, state, and national) Recognize major components of the United States governmental system Define basic principles of the United States Constitution: e.g., federalism, separation of powers, protections of civil liberties, due process Identify rights and responsibilities of United States citizens Demonstrate knowledge of comparative political theories and systems 86

Demonstrate knowledge of the purpose of diplomacy and foreign policy Demonstrate an understanding of current United States policies towards international relations C. Knowledge of the World’s Biases and Issues: International perspective Understand the day-today realities, political environment, and current events of other cultures and peoples Demonstrate knowledge of principle periods of literature, architecture, art, etc., including major or representative works Identify sources of information on world events Analyze critically sources of information on world events Demonstrate a knowledge of international issues such as poverty, population growth, and global warming Reflect on, and compare, a variety of perspectives on world historical events Understand the interconnections between local and international issues 87

D. Knowledge of Historical Developments throughout the World Identify political, economic, and religious reasons for colonization Recognize the influence of the American physical environment on the development of political, economic, and religious institutions Understand the impact of historical events, culture, political structures, and geography on world events Demonstrate knowledge of prehistory and ancient civilizations including the non-Western world Demonstrate knowledge of classical civilizations including the non-Western world Demonstrate knowledge of the major periods of history Demonstrate knowledge of revolutionary movements Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics and growth of European nationalism 88

Identify major contemporary world issues and trends Explain the international relationships that developed in 19thcentury Europe Recognize the impact of imperialism on the contemporary world Recognize the role and limitations of the United Nations Demonstrate knowledge of historical trends on other continents Demonstrate knowledge of the impact of the world’s great religions on social, cultural, and political realities in society Integrate knowledge of Asian, Central and South American, Soviet, Russian, and African history E. Knowledge of World Geography, Including Maps and Globes: Demonstrate general knowledge of the seven continents Recognize examples of how geography has affected agrarian and industrial economies

89

Assess geographic reasons why specified countries join alliances or remain neutral F. Knowledge of Economic Systems: Demonstrate knowledge of international economic concepts Compare the United States economy to other economies Recognize the characteristics of mixed economies Demonstrate knowledge of educational, social, health, and environmental influences on economic development Determine the role of the government in regulation and protection Demonstrate knowledge of the laws of supply and demand Identify financial institutions, instruments, and markets Identify the functions and tools of the Federal Reserve System Identify the functions and characteristics of the Eurodollar Analyze barriers to trade and their effects 90

Analyze exchange rates and demonstrate ability to convert from one currency to another Identify examples of international economic interdependence Analyze economic growth and development Identify the role of transnational (multinational) corporations in the world economy Language skills A. Knowledge of How to Use English (your own language) in Other Cultures and How to Use a Foreign Language in the Native Country Adapt use of English to the formality of the situation and the fluency of the business partner in international business and social settings Speak an additional language(s) proficiently enough to understand and be understood in everyday conversation -- understand a newspaper, technical reports, and everyday instructions (e.g., using a telephone)

91

Demonstrate ability to read and write in a foreign language Resiliency and Coping Skills: Individualoriented A. Knowledge of Personal Management/Resolve: Personal traits, personal management skills Demonstrate integrity within one’s own culture Demonstrate ability to manage one’s own stress levels Demonstrate ability to practice good self-care Demonstrate assertiveness Demonstrate diligence Demonstrate selfconfidence Demonstrate selfdiscipline Demonstrate selfawareness Demonstrate enthusiasm Demonstrate ability to motivate oneself Demonstrate ability to set meaningful goals Demonstrate ability to handle problems Demonstrate dependability Demonstrate ability to be flexible and adaptable 92

Demonstrate commitment to quality work Demonstrate ability to self-evaluate personal strengths and weaknesses (awareness of personal skills and abilities) Demonstrate ability to evaluate how personal strengths, values, and interests relate to the occupation Demonstrate ability to discern how other people react, positively or negatively, toward oneself Demonstrate ability to adjust actions in relation to others’ actions (coordination) Demonstrate understanding of illegal, physically abusive, and violent actions Demonstrate methods for handling challenging situations under difficult circumstances Demonstrate ability to manage multiple priorities (multitask) Demonstrate psychological preparedness for the situations one might encounter in an international setting

93

Identify and respond to one’s own stage of adaptation and culture shock Take initiative to facilitate social interaction Demonstrate amenability toward training B. Knowledge of Communication Skills Practice good listening skills (learn to speak less, listen more) Demonstrate knowledge of Standard English: correct grammar, organization, writing strategy, sentence structure, and punctuation required for writing or editing reports Identify and apply knowledge of the various composing processes, including but not limited to prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, proofreading, and publishing strategies Demonstrate ability to express ideas orally with consideration for audiences that understand English language in varying degrees

94

Demonstrate ability to understand verbal instructions, even in settings where these may be some language difficulty Demonstrate understanding of written sentences and paragraphs in workrelated documents (reading comprehension) Demonstrate ability to communicate effectively with others in writing as indicated by the needs of the audience (writing) Demonstrate ability to listen to what other people are saying and ask questions as appropriate (active listening) Demonstrate ability to understand the impact of different types of media on individuals and society Address communication challenges in reaching an international membership by understanding the audience, the media, and the message in both local and international contexts Understand the necessity of tailoring messages to reflect cultural context and difference 95

C. Knowledge of Effective DecisionMaking: Making good judgments Demonstrate ability to make appropriate decisions Demonstrate ability for high functioning in a specific role, even if the role is experiencing change and fluctuation Demonstrate ability for high functioning in settings experiencing organizational change Demonstrate process thinking rather than function thinking Demonstrate effective judgment and decision-making skills by weighing the relative costs and benefits of a potential action Demonstrate ability to evaluate the likely success of an idea in relation to the demands of the situation D. Knowledge of Solution-Oriented Practices: Problem identification, information gathering, idea evaluation, and conflict resolution) Demonstrate ability to listen to others and ask clarifying questions as appropriate 96

Demonstrate knowledge of how to find information and identify essential information (information gathering) Know how to and be willing to find information on another society Demonstrate problem solving skills, including problem identification and solution implementation Demonstrate ability to problem-solve issues related to one’s professional competence in different cultural contexts Demonstrate knowledge of critical thinking skills Demonstrate ability to make effective use of academic knowledge on the job Demonstrate use of logic and analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches (critical thinking) Demonstrate ability to balance organization’s needs against technical solutions Demonstrate ability to resolve conflict

97

Demonstrate ability to negotiate, manage conflict, and reach resolutions across cultural and class divisions Team Work and Leadership Skills/Traits: Grouporiented A. Knowledge of Group Dynamics: Demonstrate leadership skills in diverse situations and diverse cultural settings Demonstrate ability to discern effective group output Demonstrate ability to understand assignments within a group context Demonstrate ability to recognize signals from others in a group setting Demonstrate understanding of relationships within a working group environment Demonstrate ability to form a new group and develop quickly into a working team Work as an equal with people of diverse backgrounds, with unbiased openmindedness

98

Develop the ability to collaborate instead of compete Develop and effectively leverage multicultural teams across cultures Demonstrate ability to understand and manage intercultural group dynamics, including crosscultural dynamics of consensus building B. Knowledge of Organizational Effectiveness and Leadership Demonstrate ability to understand how the organization works Demonstrate ability to understand how the actions of individuals affect the organization and its strategic objectives, and vice versa Demonstrate ability to determine forces and factors that interfere with the organization’s ability to accomplish its tasks Demonstrate ability for team-building Demonstrate ability to lead with an international mindset Demonstrate ability to explore and learn actively from culturally different styles of leadership 99

Governance and Strategy: The organization’s vision, strategy, structure, culture, and people A. Knowledge of the Organization and Its International Position Demonstrate an understanding of the organization’s international strategic vision (clearly defined, understood, communicated, and accepted throughout the organization) Demonstrate an understanding of the evolutionary stages of globalization, including the difference between being a/an domestic, international, and global association, visà-vis governance Demonstrate an understanding of cultural contexts for volunteerism outside the organization’s home country Demonstrate ability to recognize the need for international policy development (guiding internal governance, strategy, operations, etc.) Demonstrate ability to monitor and analyze demographic, social, and scientific trends worldwide 100

Define terminology at all levels of the organization to avoid cross-cultural misunderstandings Demonstrate an understanding of the international context and cultural norms of potential members, customers, partners, and other stakeholders Technology A. Knowledge of Computer Software Demonstrate ability to use the features of productivity software: word processors, spreadsheets, databases, desktop publishing, graphics, multimedia, and electronic mail B. Knowledge of the Use of Current Computer-Related Technologies in Society Recognize the impact of computer technology on society Identify the uses of telecommunications in society Identify positive and/or negative effects of computer technology on an international society Identify ethical and legal issues related to computer technology 101

Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of culture and technology on learning

102

Please respond to the open-ended questions on the next page. Feel free to attach additional paper if necessary.

1. The overall organization of the list (groupings and headings) is: _____Excellent, no changes needed _____Good, some changes recommended _____Fair, needs several changes _____Poor, needs reworking Comments: ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

2. Please respond to the adequacy of the following pieces of information (provided at the beginning of the survey (pages 2 and 3): Purpose (pg 2)

_____adequate

_____inadequate

Use of list (pg 2)

_____adequate

_____inadequate

Assumptions (pg 3)

_____adequate

_____inadequate

Limitations (pg 3)

_____adequate

_____inadequate

Comments:__________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

103

3. Are there key terms that need to be defined? If so, which one(s)? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

4. Would this categorized list of competencies and skills be useful to you in your current position? If yes, in what way(s)?

_____Yes _____No

Comments: ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

5. Please identify 5 competencies or skills that you believe are the most important/critical generic competencies for ensuring initial success of recent college graduates starting careers in international settings (please write the numbers of the competencies/skills on the lines provided): 1._________

4._________

2._________

5._________

3._________

104

Attachment C: List of Competencies and Skills with Recommendations from Survey Results

Competencies and Skills What a recent graduate needs to be able to know and do in order to secure an entrylevel, professional employment position in an international setting. Very Important

Intercultural competencies: International mindset – develop attitudes that support your international strategy A. Knowledge of Interpersonal Context Demonstrate the qualities of tolerance, sensitivity to others, and tact Demonstrate openmindedness and curiosity with respect to other countries and cultures Demonstrate pride in one’s own culture and accomplishments Recognize and respect individual and cultural differences

Important

Somewhat Important

Not Very Delete Important from List

9

9

9 9

105

9 Recognize issues that may be sensitive to other cultures and peoples; respect their beliefs Demonstrate willingness to adapt to others’ standards of behavior: political, cultural, social, and religious Understand how culture and politics influence the business practices and business ethics of other societies 9 Demonstrate appropriate international etiquette in situations with business colleagues and clients such as greeting, introducing, thanking, taking leave, negotiating, and confirming contracts, socializing, paying and receiving compliments, and gift-giving Demonstrate the ability to look constantly for the big picture or multiple possibilities for any event or occurrence B. Knowledge of Societal Context: Cultural diversity, cross-cultural awareness, foreign society, customs, and culture Identify the basic beliefs of the world’s major religions

9

9

9

9

106

9

Describe the historical context, development, and conflicts growing out of the interaction of the world’s religions Define culture Describe ways in which people adapt culturally to different physical environments Define cultural regions, including classification of the dominant cultural traits or features of major regions Determine cultural factors influencing population growth Identify cultural diffusion Identify cultural differences that may lead to obstacles in communication Knowledge of social class and socioeconomic variables and their impacts upon societies and individuals Understanding National and World Issues A. Knowledge of One’s Own Biases, Values, and Issues Demonstrate flexibility while retaining the stability of one’s own identity and values

9 9

9

9 9 9

9

9

107

Develop an international mindset that is flexible and comfortable with ambiguity and chaos Identify one’s own biases and attitudes Fully understand one’s own cultural conditioning, values, and assumptions, as well as their impact on the organization’s culture Examine one’s own assumptions about other cultures Behave in a manner that demonstrates knowledge of and respect for other countries Subjugate the need to impose one’s own structure and ideas on others Understand the impact that one’s own values and beliefs have on perception of world events Assess one’s own knowledge and skills to think about and act on international concerns Demonstrate a personal commitment to social justice, equity, and stewardship on an environmental level Recognize diversity as a resource to be leveraged

9

9 9

9 9

9

9

9

9

9

108

B. Knowledge of One’s Own Country’s Biases and Issues Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of Western liberal democratic views on one’s perceptions of the world Demonstrate an understanding of the history of the United States’ international relations and experience Demonstrate an understanding of United States customs Demonstrate an understanding of United States culture Demonstrate an understanding of United States society Recognize the functions of the United States government (local, state, and national) Recognize major components of the United States governmental system Define basic principles of the United States Constitution: e.g., federalism, separation of powers, protections of civil liberties, due process Identify rights and responsibilities of United States citizens

9

9

9 9 9 9

9

9

9

109

9

Demonstrate knowledge of comparative political theories and systems Demonstrate knowledge of the purpose of diplomacy and foreign policy Demonstrate an understanding of current United States policies towards international relations C. Knowledge of the World’s Biases and Issues: International perspective Understand the day-today realities, political environment, and current events of other cultures and peoples Demonstrate knowledge of principle periods of literature, architecture, art, etc., including major or representative works Identify sources of information on world events Analyze critically sources of information on world events Demonstrate a knowledge of international issues such as poverty, population growth, and global warming Reflect on, and compare, a variety of perspectives on world historical events

9

9

9

9

9 9 9

9

110

9

Understand the interconnections between local and international issues D. Knowledge of Historical Developments throughout the World Identify political, economic, and religious reasons for colonization Recognize the influence of the American physical environment on the development of political, economic, and religious institutions Understand the impact of historical events, culture, political structures, and geography on world events Demonstrate knowledge of prehistory and ancient civilizations including the non-Western world Demonstrate knowledge of classical civilizations including the non-Western world Demonstrate knowledge of the major periods of history Demonstrate knowledge of revolutionary movements Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics and growth of European nationalism

9 9

9

9

9

9 9

9

111

9

Identify major contemporary world issues and trends Explain the international relationships that developed in 19thcentury Europe Recognize the impact of imperialism on the contemporary world Recognize the role and limitations of the United Nations Demonstrate knowledge of historical trends on other continents Demonstrate knowledge of the impact of the world’s great religions on social, cultural, and political realities in society Integrate knowledge of Asian, Central and South American, Soviet, Russian, and African history E. Knowledge of World Geography, Including Maps and Globes: Demonstrate general knowledge of the seven continents Recognize examples of how geography has affected agrarian and industrial economies

9

9 9 9

9

9

9 9

112

9

Assess geographic reasons why specified countries join alliances or remain neutral F. Knowledge of Economic Systems: Demonstrate knowledge of international economic concepts Compare the United States economy to other economies Recognize the characteristics of mixed economies Demonstrate knowledge of educational, social, health, and environmental influences on economic development Determine the role of the government in regulation and protection Demonstrate knowledge of the laws of supply and demand Identify financial institutions, instruments, and markets Identify the functions and tools of the Federal Reserve System Identify the functions and characteristics of the Eurodollar Analyze barriers to trade and their effects

9

9 9 9

9

9 9

9 9 9

113

9

Analyze exchange rates and demonstrate ability to convert from one currency to another Identify examples of international economic interdependence Analyze economic growth and development Identify the role of transnational (multinational) corporations in the world economy Language skills A. Knowledge of How to Use English (your own language) in Other Cultures and How to Use a Foreign Language in the Native Country Adapt use of English to 9 the formality of the situation and the fluency of the business partner in international business and social settings Speak an additional language(s) proficiently enough to understand and be understood in everyday conversation - understand a newspaper, technical reports, and everyday instructions (e.g., using a telephone) Demonstrate ability to read and write in a foreign language

9 9 9

9

9

114

Resiliency and Coping Skills: Individualoriented A. Knowledge of Personal Management/Resolve: Personal traits, personal management skills Demonstrate integrity within one’s own culture 9 Demonstrate ability to manage one’s own stress levels Demonstrate ability to practice good self-care Demonstrate assertiveness Demonstrate diligence Demonstrate selfconfidence Demonstrate selfdiscipline Demonstrate selfawareness Demonstrate enthusiasm Demonstrate ability to motivate oneself Demonstrate ability to set meaningful goals Demonstrate ability to handle problems Demonstrate dependability Demonstrate ability to be flexible and adaptable Demonstrate commitment to quality work

9

9 9 9 9 9

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

115

Demonstrate ability to self-evaluate personal strengths and weaknesses (awareness of personal skills and abilities) Demonstrate ability to evaluate how personal strengths, values, and interests relate to the occupation Demonstrate ability to discern how other people react, positively or negatively, toward oneself Demonstrate ability to adjust actions in relation to others’ actions (coordination) Demonstrate understanding of illegal, physically abusive, and violent actions Demonstrate methods for handling challenging situations under difficult circumstances Demonstrate ability to manage multiple priorities (multitask) Demonstrate psychological preparedness for the situations one might encounter in an international setting Identify and respond to one’s own stage of adaptation and culture shock

9

9

9

9

9

9

9 9

9

116

Take initiative to facilitate social interaction Demonstrate amenability toward training B. Knowledge of Communication Skills Practice good listening skills (learn to speak less, listen more) Demonstrate knowledge of Standard English: correct grammar, organization, writing strategy, sentence structure, and punctuation required for writing or editing reports Identify and apply knowledge of the various composing processes, including but not limited to prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, proofreading, and publishing strategies Demonstrate ability to express ideas orally with consideration for audiences that understand English language in varying degrees Demonstrate ability to understand verbal instructions, even in settings where these may be some language difficulty

9 9

9 9

9

9

9

117

Demonstrate understanding of written sentences and paragraphs in workrelated documents (reading comprehension) 9 Demonstrate ability to communicate effectively with others in writing as indicated by the needs of the audience (writing) 9 Demonstrate ability to listen to what other people are saying and ask questions as appropriate (active listening) Demonstrate ability to understand the impact of different types of media on individuals and society Address communication challenges in reaching an international membership by understanding the audience, the media, and the message in both local and international contexts 9 Understand the necessity of tailoring messages to reflect cultural context and difference C. Knowledge of Effective DecisionMaking: Making good judgments

9

9

9

118

Demonstrate ability to make appropriate decisions Demonstrate ability for high functioning in a specific role, even if the role is experiencing change and fluctuation Demonstrate ability for high functioning in settings experiencing organizational change Demonstrate process thinking rather than function thinking Demonstrate effective judgment and decisionmaking skills by weighing the relative costs and benefits of a potential action Demonstrate ability to evaluate the likely success of an idea in relation to the demands of the situation D. Knowledge of Solution-Oriented Practices: Problem identification, information gathering, idea evaluation, and conflict resolution Demonstrate ability to listen to others and ask clarifying questions as appropriate Demonstrate knowledge of how to find information and identify essential information (information gathering)

9 9

9

9 9

9

9

9

119

Know how to and be willing to find information on another society Demonstrate problem solving skills, including problem identification and solution implementation 9 Demonstrate ability to problem-solve issues related to one’s professional competence in different cultural contexts Demonstrate knowledge of critical thinking skills Demonstrate ability to make effective use of academic knowledge on the job Demonstrate use of logic and analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches (critical thinking) Demonstrate ability to balance organization’s needs against technical solutions Demonstrate ability to resolve conflict Demonstrate ability to negotiate, manage conflict, and reach resolutions across cultural and class divisions Team Work and Leadership Skills/Traits: Grouporiented

9

9

9 9

9

9

9 9

120

A. Knowledge of Group Dynamics: Demonstrate leadership skills in diverse situations and diverse cultural settings Demonstrate ability to discern effective group output Demonstrate ability to understand assignments within a group context Demonstrate ability to recognize signals from others in a group setting Demonstrate understanding of relationships within a working group environment Demonstrate ability to form a new group and develop quickly into a working team Work as an equal with people of diverse backgrounds, with unbiased openmindedness Develop the ability to collaborate instead of compete Develop and effectively leverage multicultural teams across cultures Demonstrate ability to understand and manage intercultural group dynamics, including cross-cultural dynamics of consensus building

9

9 9 9

9

9

9

9 9 9

121

B. Knowledge of Organizational Effectiveness and Leadership 9 Demonstrate ability to understand how the organization works Demonstrate ability to understand how the actions of individuals affect the organization and its strategic objectives, and vice versa Demonstrate ability to determine forces and factors that interfere with the organization’s ability to accomplish its tasks Demonstrate ability for 9 team-building Demonstrate ability to lead with an international mindset Demonstrate ability to explore and learn actively from culturally different styles of leadership Governance and Strategy: The organization’s vision, strategy, structure, culture, and people A. Knowledge of the Organization and Its International Position

9

9

9 9

122

9 Demonstrate an understanding of the organization’s international strategic vision (clearly defined, understood, communicated, and accepted throughout the organization) Demonstrate an understanding of the evolutionary stages of globalization, including the difference between being a/an domestic, international, and global association, visà-vis governance Demonstrate an understanding of cultural contexts for volunteerism outside the organization’s home country Demonstrate ability to recognize the need for international policy development (guiding internal governance, strategy, operations, etc.) Demonstrate ability to monitor and analyze demographic, social, and scientific trends worldwide Define terminology at all levels of the organization to avoid cross-cultural misunderstandings

9

9

9

9

9

123

Demonstrate an understanding of the international context and cultural norms of potential members, customers, partners, and other stakeholders Technology

9

A. Knowledge of Computer Software Demonstrate ability to use the features of productivity software: word processors, spreadsheets, databases, desktop publishing, graphics, multimedia, and electronic mail B. Knowledge of the Use of Current Computer-Related Technologies in Society Recognize the impact of computer technology on society Identify the uses of telecommunications in society Identify positive and/or negative effects of computer technology on an international society Identify ethical and legal issues related to computer technology Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of culture and technology on learning

9

9 9 9

9 9

124

Loading...

Competencies and skills in the globalized workforce - Scholar Commons

University of South Florida Scholar Commons Graduate Theses and Dissertations Graduate School 2004 Competencies and skills in the globalized workf...

788KB Sizes 31 Downloads 6 Views

Recommend Documents

7 Knowledge and Competencies | Transforming the Workforce for
Read chapter 7 Knowledge and Competencies: Children are already learning at birth, and they develop and learn at a rapid

Visual Inspection - Skills Commons
Visual Inspection. Types of Examinations. Per Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (Rules for In-serv

Prescription Processing - Skills Commons
and telephone number. • Date: The date the prescription was written. • Inscription: Name (brand or generic), strengt

Identity Crisis and the Emergence of the - Scholar Commons
Jan 1, 2013 - literature responds to the social conditions of Early Modern Spain, and in doing so, ... Backwards and For

Skills and Core Competencies Resume Examples - Acegoals
Sep 9, 2016 - Different persons have their different ways of writing the skills and core competencies section of the CV.

Skills vs Competencies. What's the Difference? - TalentAlign
Dec 6, 2012 - Functional (or Technical) Competencies Functional Competencies relate to functions, processes, and roles w

Neutering Neoliberalism: Masculinities and Gore - Scholar Commons
Charlebois for inspiring me to return to graduate school in 2011, and for their steady encouragement ..... Padura descri

Civic engagement, pedagogy, and information - Scholar Commons
communication via the Internet, including email, instant messaging, Internet Relay Chat, message boards, listservs, mult

Skills, Competencies and the Sustainability of the Modern Audit
Other sessions were held with trainee chartered accountants and students. Rather than identifying a list of specific ski

Multi-Languages Interpreter Skills and Competencies
Aug 7, 2017 - Research and Technical Competence ... “The skills and competencies described above shall be demonstrated